Conservation education promotes positive short- and medium-term changes in perceptions and attitudes towards a threatened primate species

Authors

  • Galicia Fernanda Bernárdez-Rodriguez Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
  • Mark Bowler
  • Franciany Braga-Pereira
  • Maxine McNaughton
  • Pedro Mayor Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15451/ec2021-09-10.31-1-16

Keywords:

Cacajao calvus, Conservation, Education Workshop, Perceptions Changes, Red Uakari

Abstract

Many wildlife conservation projects aim to change the perceptions of local communities through conservation education programs. However, few assess whether and how these programs effectively promote shifts in community perceptions and attitudes towards wildlife conservation. We designed an educational program focused on communicating to local inhabitants from a remote community in the Peruvian Amazon that their territories are considered globally important for the red uakari (Cacajao calvus), and inspire them to become protectors and defenders of this endangered species. We aimed to evaluate changes in perceptions and attitudes towards the red uakari monkey after a conservation education workshop. We found that positive attitudes and perceptions towards the red uakari (such as uakari hunting suspension and perception of uakari importance) increased immediately after and in the short-term (two years) following the workshop but diminished in the medium-term (three years). However, attitudes remained better than before the workshop. Our results indicate that conservation education programs are useful in encouraging positive attitudes towards wildlife conservation in the short term, but ongoing environmental education activities may be necessary to have lasting positive effects.

References

Adams WM., Sandbook C (2014) Conservation, evidence and policy. Oryx 47:329-335. doi: 10.1017/S0030605312001470

Aguilar OM (2018) Examining the literature to reveal the nature of community EE/ESD programs and research. Environmental Education Research 24(1):26-49. doi: 10.1080/13504622.2016.1244658

Ardoin NM (2006) Toward an interdisciplinary understanding of place: Lessons for environmental education. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education 11(1):112–126.

Bergen N, Labonté R (2020) “Everything is perfect, and we have no problems”: detecting and limiting social desirability bias in qualitative research. Qualitative health research 30(5):783-792. doi: 10.1177/1049732319889354.

Bowler M, Noriega MJ, Recharte M, Puertas P, Bodmer R (2009) Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve a range extension across a major river barrier. Neotropical Primates 16(1):34-37. doi: 10.1896/044.016.0108

Bowler M, Valsecchi J, Queiroz HL, Bodmer R, Puertas P (2013) Communities and uacaris: Conservation initiatives in Brazil and Peru. In: Veiga L, Barnett A, Ferrari S, Norconk M (eds) Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Titis, Sakis and Uacaris, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 359-367. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139034210.043

Braun V, Clarke V (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Psychological Research 3(2):77-101. doi: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Bride I (2006) The conundrum of conservation education and the conservation mission. Conservation Biology 20(5), 1337-1339. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00544.x

Buppert T, McKeehan A (2013) Guidelines for applying free, prior and informed consent: a manual for conservation international. Conservation International, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Danielsen F, Burgess ND, Coronado I, Enghoff M, Holt S, Jensen PM, Poulsen MK, Rueda RM (2018) The value of indigenous and local knowledge as citizen science. In: Hecker S, Haklay M, Bowser A, et al. (eds) Citizen Science. UCL Press, London, UK, pp. 110-123. doi: 10.14324 /111.9781787352339

Engels CA, Jacobson SK (2007) Evaluating Long-Term Effects of the Golden Lion Tamarin Environmental Education Program in Brazil. The Journal of Environmental Education 38(3):3-14. doi: 10.3200/JOEE.38.3.3-14

Freund CA, Achmad M, Kanisius P, Naruri R, Tang E, Knott CD (2020) Conserving orangutans one classroom at a time: evaluating the effectiveness of a wildlife education program for school-aged children in Indonesia. Animal Conservation 23(1):18–27. doi: 10.1111/acv.12513

Uakari: Secrets of the English Monkey (2009) Directed by Peter Von Puttkamer, Gryphon Productions.

Harrison XA, Donaldson L, Correa-Cano ME, Evans J, Fisher DN, Goodwin CE, Robinson BS, Hodgson DJ, Inger R (2018) A brief introduction to mixed-effects modelling and multi-model inference in ecology. Peer Journal 6:e4794. doi: peerj.com/articles/4794/

Heimlich JE, Ardoin NM (2008) Understanding behavior to understand behavior change: a literature review. Environmental Education Research 14(3):215-237. doi: 10.1080/13504620802148881

Heimlich JE (2010) Environmental education evaluation: Reinterpreting education as a strategy for meeting mission. Evaluation and Program Planning 33(2):180-185. doi: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2009.07.009

Horwich RH, Lyon J (2007) Community conservation: practitioner’s answer to critics. Oryx 41(3):376–385. doi: 10.1017/S0030605307001010.

Hughes K (2013) Measuring the impact of viewing wildlife: do positive intentions equate to long-term changes in conservation behaviour? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 21(1):42-59. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2012.681788

Kellert S, Black M, Rush CR, Bath AJ (1996) Human culture and large carnivore conservation in North America. Conservation Biology 10(4):977-990. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10040977.x

King FA, Lee PC (1987) A brief survey of human attitudes to a pest species of primate - Cercopithecus aethiops. Primate Conservation 8:82-84.

Kuhar CW, Bettinger TL, Lenhard K, Tracy O, Cox D (2010) Evaluating for Long-Term Impact of an Environmental Education Program at the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 72(5):407–413. doi: 10.1002/ajp.20726

Lee PC, Priston NEC (2005) Human attitudes to primates: perceptions of pests, conflict and consequences for primate conservation. In: Paterson JD, Wallis J (eds) Commensalism and conflict: the human-primate interface. American Society of Primatologists, Norman, Oklahoma, USA, pp. 1-23.

Liddicoat K, Krasny M (2013) Research on the Long-Term Impacts of Environmental Education. In: Stevenson R, Brody M, Dillon J, Wals A (eds). International Handbook of Research on Environmental Education. Routledge/Taylor & Francis, London, UK, pp. 289–297.

Mayor P, El Bizri H, Bodmer RE, Bowler M (2017) Assessment of mammal reproduction for hunting sustainability through community-based sampling of species in the wild. Conservation Biology 31(4):912-923. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12870.

Mayor P, Perez-Peña P, Bowler M, Puertas PE, Kirkland M, and Bodmer R (2015) Effects of selective logging on large mammal populations in a remote Indigenous territory in the northern Peruvian Amazon. Ecology and Society 20(4):36. doi: 10.5751/ES-08023-200436.

Puertas P, Bodmer R (1993) Conservation of a High Diversity Primate Assemblage. Biodiversity and Conservation 2(6):586-593. doi: 10.1007/BF00051959

R Core Team (2017) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 14 July 2019.

Remis MJ, Hardin R (2009) Transvalued Species in an African Forest. Conservation Biology 23(6):1588–1596. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01290.x

Reyes-García R (2009) Conocimiento ecológico tradicional para la conservación: dinámicas y conflictos. Revista Papeles 107:39-55.

Ruiz-Mallen I, Barraza L, Bodenhorn B, Ceja-Adame M, Reyes-Garcia V (2010) Contextualising Learning through the Participatory Construction of an Environmental Education Programme. International Journal of Science Education 32(13):1755-1770. doi: 10.1080/09500690903203135

Russell C (1999) Problematizing nature experience in environmental education: The interrelationship of experience and story. Journal of Experimental Education 22(3):123- 137. doi: 10.1177/105382599902200304

Savage A, Guillen R, Lamilla I, Soto L (2010) Developing an effective community conservation program for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia. American Journal of Primatology. 72(5):379-90. doi: 10.1002/ajp.20770

Schultz (2011). Conservation means behaviour. Conservation Biology 25(6):1080-1083. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01766.x

Veiga LM, Bowler M, Silva Jr JS, Queiroz HL, Boubli JP, Rylands AB (2008) Cacajao calvus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T3416A9846330. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T3416A9846330.en. Accessed 14 July 2019.

Waylen KA, Fischer A, McGowan PJK, Thirgood SJ, Milner-Gulland EJ (2010) Effect of local cultural context on the success of community-based conservation interventions. Conservation Biology 24(4):1119–1129. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01446.x

Downloads

Published

15/10/2021

How to Cite

Bernárdez-Rodriguez, G. F. ., Bowler, M., Braga-Pereira, F., McNaughton, M., & Mayor, P. (2021). Conservation education promotes positive short- and medium-term changes in perceptions and attitudes towards a threatened primate species. Ethnobiology and Conservation, 10. https://doi.org/10.15451/ec2021-09-10.31-1-16

Issue

Section

Special Issue