Ethnobiology and Conservation https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc en-US Ethnobiology and Conservation 2238-4782 Declaração de direito autoral de teste. Gender and ethnic equity: what can we learn from ancestral and indigenous peoples to deal with socio-environmental issues? https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/475 <h2>The socio-environmental crisis that we are currently experiencing requires integrative research approaches and actions. Ethnobiology has important potential in this regard, both for its interdisciplinary nature and for recording the relationship between humans and the environment at different times and places. In this way, this opinion essay aims to discuss what we can learn from ancestral societies and Indigenous peoples for the establishment of a more equitable and sustainable world, considering the intersection between gender and ethnic groups. We will begin by examining the history of societies in Old Europe and how domineering and patriarchal societies have been established. We will discuss a few findings about pre-Columbian peoples in America that reinforces the the existence of more equitable societies. We add discussions related to gender, in the context of Indigenous peoples, and reflecting on the importance of the feminine and of the complementarity in social relationships. Finally, we discuss the role of ethnobiological research in this context and the ways of collaborating to support values that favor the establishment of equitable societies, which are fundamental to address the challenges of this era of change.</h2> Sofia Zank Natalia Hanazaki Clarissa Rocha de Melo Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2021-02-19 2021-02-19 10 10.15451/ec2021-02-10.16-1-9 Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on international academic study exchange and research mobility programs https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/513 <p>In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, international exchange students and mobility researchers are probably the most neglected group within academia. We highlight their challenges within academia and society and we propose solutions towards academic flexibility, mobility preparedness and cultural immersion in host communities.</p> Farid Dahdouh-Guebas Ina Vandebroek Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2021-02-25 2021-02-25 10 10.15451/ec2021-02-10.17-1-7 In a world in shadows and flames scientists and laypeople need better understanding of how science works https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/502 <p>Major events, such as pandemics and war, generate great public interest in science, as in the current moment in which we live. We argue, however, that this interest operates through historical pulses and that it does not lead to an increase in scientific literacy in society in general and even among the scientists themselves.</p> Ulysses Albuquerque Charbel N. El-Hani Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-12-24 2020-12-24 10 10.15451/ec2020-12-10.13-1-4 Zootherapeutic practices in the Amazon Region: chemical and pharmacological studies of Green-anaconda fat (<em>Eunectes murinus</em>) and alternatives for species conservation https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/512 <p>The treatment of diseases with animal resources or their derivatives is a traditional practice worldwide, representing a wide field of research for the elaboration of strategies of management and conservation of the fauna, and contributing to the search for sustainable therapy alternatives. This study presents the therapeutic applications of animal fats to the treatment of several diseases in Pimenteiras do Oeste, state of Rondônia, Brazil. Twelve animals including: mammals, fishes, reptiles and birds are reported as a source of medicinal lard for the treatment of respiratory illnesses (asthma, flu, bronchitis, cough), rheumatism, and earache and as a healing agent (dislocation and wounds). The ethnopharmacological focus of the study was on Green-anaconda fat (<em>Eunectes murinus</em>), which stands out for its frequent local use and the lack of previous chemical studies. The chemical composition of <em>E. murinus</em> fat was analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography, both coupled to mass spectrometry. The main fatty acids identified were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids, which were also predominant in the composition of the triglycerides. Pharmacological analysis of Green-anaconda fat showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect, which is related to its use by traditional communities. Having confirmed the pharmacological potential of Green-anaconda fat, its fatty acid composition was used as a parameter in the search for vegetable oils from the Amazon Region with a similar composition. This comparative analysis can be of help by proposing therapeutic alternatives for the Amazonian population. The use of plant sources can contribute to the conservation of the aforementioned species.</p> Camila Ferreira Abrão Danilo Ribeiro de Oliveira Paulo Passos Carla Valéria Rodrigues Pereira Freitas Amanda Ferreira Santana Marilene Lopes da Rocha Antonio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva Luzineide Wanderley Tinoco Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2021-02-19 2021-02-19 10 10.15451/ec2021-02-10.15-1-27 Management of native and exotic plant species with edible fruits in a rural community in a protected area of NW Patagonia https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/424 Management practices are very sensitive to socio-environmental change and the influence of market society. This case study was carried out in the Cuyín Manzano rural community, situated in a protected area within the North Patagonian UNESCO biosphere reserve. We investigate the differential practices applied by the community with regard to management of native and introduced species with edible fruits using semi-structured and free interviews in 11 homes (80%). A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was also performed to validate the field results. The data was analyzed quali-quantitatively, in the latter case with Generalized Linear Models. A total richness of 27 species was found, of which 11 were native and 17 introduced. Native plants were mainly managed by gathering and tolerance, while exotic species were not only harvested, but also protected, sown and transplanted, and plants inherited from forebears were cared for. Management intensity varied according to origin, being greater for the introduced species. In addition, the species of greater cultural importance were also those which experienced a higher number of management practices, with possible processes of incipient domestication being particularly notable for two native plants. Exotic plants have a higher probability of being managed, and with greater intensity, than native ones, even though the latter have had a much longer history of use. Our results show patterns of diversification of edible fruit species through different management practices. For inhabitants, these practices represent significant situations of contact with nature, which enable traditions based on local knowledge to be maintained. Melina F. Chamorro Ana H. Ladio Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2021-02-10 2021-02-10 10 10.15451/ec2021-02-10.14-1-24 Voluntary scuba diving as a method for monitoring invasive exotic marine species in Ilha Grande Bay–RJ, Brazil. https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/366 Monitoring surveys provide data needed to assess ecosystem conditions in places where bioinvasion occurs. The collection of data by volunteer researchers (citizen science) is an alternative for scientists and research agencies that lack information but do not have sufficient financial resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate marine monitoring using voluntary recreational scuba diving to identify invasive exotic marine species at eight diving sites distributed between the north of Ilha Grande and the municipality of Angra dos Reis in the Central Channel of Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro state. During the three months of study, 207 questionnaires were evaluated. The results showed that the group of volunteer divers with more experience identified a greater number of invasive exotic species compared to the group of divers with less experience. No statistical difference was found in the number of species identified between the groups of volunteer divers with and without a species identification chart. As a recommendation for the use of citizen science, it is necessary to use divers with greater diving experience. Developing stricter protocols for the identification of invasive exotic marine species is essential for the collection of quality data. The improvement of monitoring programs based on citizen science can provide useful information for research on biodiversity in marine environments, significantly reducing financial costs and time in the field, in addition to contributing to the ecological knowledge, awareness and environmental education of participants Tarcio S. Mangelli Cleverson Zapelini Wesley Duarte da Rocha Alexandre Schiavetti Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 10 Ethnotaxonomy of sharks by expert fishers from South Bahia, Brazil: Implications for fisheries management and conservation https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/412 <p>Historically, Brazilian fisheries management has not considered the knowledge of fish taxonomy from within fishing communities. This study points out processes of recognition, classification and nomenclature of sharks achieved by fishermen from South Bahia, Brazil. Data were obtained through semistructured interviews visually stimulated by exhibiting images of 30 species of elasmobranch fishes. Regionally, elasmobranch species are inserted into the folk taxon called “leather fishes" and in a category known as “cação" (shark) family. In addition to hierarchical classification, the fishermen organize shark species by adopting an ethnodimorphic and sequential model based on ethnoontogeny. Ethnodiagnostic characteristics are mainly related to the morphology, ecology and even physiology of a species. A total of 144 epithets is recorded, with a mean value of 4.8 ethnospecies for each scientific correspondent. Richness of vernacular names impedes species-specific information gathering regarding shark landings if fisher knowledge is not considered and applied in the improvement of fisheries data. Thus, this study encourages the employment of fishermen as parataxonomists in order to assist in the identification of sharks to specific levels. This study further emphasizes the potential of using ethnotaxonomic knowledge of fishing communities in initiatives related to participative management of shark fisheries in developing countries.</p> Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho Milena Ramires José da Silva Mourão Ricardo de Souza Rosa Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega Alves Eraldo Medeiros Costa-Neto Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-08-22 2020-08-22 10 10.15451/ec2021-08-10.02-1-12 Can citizen science help delimit the geographical distribution of a species? The case of the Callistoctopus sp. (“eastern octopus”) on the Brazilian coast https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/413 <p>This study presents the first considerations and observations of the occurrence of the octopus <em>Callistoctopus</em> sp. on the coast of Brazil. Local ecological knowledge (LEK) and citizen science, used as a research tool, were fundamental to confirm the presence and delimit the distribution of this species on the Brazilian coast. In all, 187 interviews were conducted with octopus fishers in 17 localities surrounding six marine protected areas, between March 2018 and August 2019. During the development of the work, the number of volunteer participants significantly increased, from the initial 107 specialists to about 2180 local informants, including fishers, divers and diving instructors. The SWOT matrix was used as a synthesis method to identify the possibilities for the use of citizen science in ethnoecological studies. By using citizen science, it was possible to extend the area of distribution of this new species from the three existing records of individuals captured for the state of Pernambuco and Bahia to eleven records for more than seven states. The citizen science tool was considered useful for the generation of data that complement scientific research, and its greatest obstacle for use in ethnobiological studies was the need to motivate volunteers to increase the robustness of the collected data.</p> Manuella Dultra de Jesus Cleverson Zapelini Alexandre Schiavetti Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-09-12 2020-09-12 10 Distribution, eco-climatic characterisation, and potential growing regions of Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) in Mexico. https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/406 The cherimoya (<em>Annona cherimola </em>Mill.) is a fruit crop with worldwide commercial importance. However, its distribution and potential growing regions of cherimoya are not defined for Mexico. That is why, this research aims to map the natural distribution of cherimoya and different eco-climatic regions where it is grown in Mexico as well as to map the climatic adaptability with the current climate and a prospection with the climate change scenario, all by different models of GIS. The general distribution model of cherimoya in Mexico showed that it had a chance to find cherimoya “in a natural way” in the biogeographic provinces Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Sierra Madre del Sur and Highlands of Chiapas. Three eco-climatic groups were found in the distribution of cherimoya that corresponded to climates <em>C(m)(w)</em>, <em>(A)C(e’)</em>, and <em>(A)C(e)</em>, respectively. Where the group with climate <em>(A)C(e)</em> had the most restricted distribution. The potential growing regions of excellent adaptation of cherimoya were found in the biogeographic provinces of Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre del Sur and Highlands of Chiapas. Finally, based on eco-crop modelling, it is concluded that climate change will not greatly affect areas of excellent adaptation of cherimoya in Mexico. Jesús Rubén Rodríguez-Núñez Eduardo Campos-Rojas Jorge Andrés-Agustín Iran Alia-Tejacal Santo Angel Ortega-Acosta Vicente Peña-Caballero Tomás Jesús Madera-Santana Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-10-09 2020-10-09 10 Does the respondent's role affect the final value of management effectiveness? The case of Brazilian marine protected areas https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/381 <p>Over the last decade, there has been a change in the way protected areas are managed across the world, as their management gradually ceases to be the sole responsibility of the government and is being shared with civil society. This study evaluates the management effectiveness, according to the managers and management boards of 20 marine protected areas (MPAs) on the coast of Brazil, using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) methodology. There were differences in perspectives of the managers and management boards; 8 MPAs showed a significant difference in management effectiveness values, and 11 MPAs showed a change in management effectiveness category. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the year the management board was established, and the effectiveness value provided by the council, as well as a significant difference between the effectiveness values of the MPAs under federal and state responsibility. In view of these differences, it is suggested that evaluations of management effectiveness should be carried out not only with managers, but also with management boards to reduce possible incongruities caused by the responses of only one person.</p> Camila S. Brandão Wesley da Rocha Cleverson Zapelini Jessyca L. Teixeira Alexandre Schiavetti Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-10-09 2020-10-09 10 10.15451/ec2020-10-10.06-1-25 Fishers' knowledge on the ecology, impacts and benefits of the non-native peacock bass <i>Cichla kelberi</i> in a coastal river in southeastern Brazil https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/319 <p>Ethnoichthyology has been used to understand how humans perceive environmental changes, including species introductions. In Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil, fishers introduced juveniles of peacock bass<em> Cichla kelberi</em> in the Juturnaíba Reservoir in the 1990’s. In the last years, this fish started to be caught in the São João River, downstream of the dam. This study aimed to identify whether fishers recognize the potential impact of the peacock bass over the native species, to understand the economic valuation they made to the services provided by this species, and if they include management of the non-native peacock bass in their practices. Semi-structured interviews with artisanal and sport fishers were employed between September and October 2016. A total of twenty-five interviews were carried out, 12 with artisanal and 13 with sport fishers. In general, fishers expressed knowledge about biological and behavioral aspects of the peacock bass, but opinions diverged on its impact over the native ichthyofauna. Differently from the artisanal, most sport fishers do not relate the decline in the population of other native species to the occurrence of the peacock bass. Instead, they mention other anthropogenic impacts in the São João River basin. The later advocate the practice of fish and release for the peacock bass, in order to maintain their population in the study area. The ethnoichthyological knowledge gathered from fishers provide novel information related to the native ichthyofauna, peacock bass introduction and other anthropogenic impacts, and might constitute a powerful tool to the development of sustainable strategies.</p> Paula Araujo Catelani Ana Cristina Petry Fernando Mayer Pelicice Renato Azevedo Matias Silvano Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-11-17 2020-11-17 10 10.15451/ec2020-11-10.04-1-16 Size matters: identity of culturally important herrings in northeastern Brazil https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/402 <span class="fontstyle0">Fishery statistics are mainly made by recording the popular fish names, which is later translated into scientific identification. However, these names often either refer to a species group and/or vary along their distribution, increasing identification uncertainty. Species that have cultural value for traditional communities are known as culturally important species (CIS). Herein, we assessed Fishers’ Ecological Knowledge to investigate small-silvery herrings (</span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga</span><span class="fontstyle0">) used as part of a traditional dish \ginga com tapioca", that is recognized as a cultural heritage in the Brazilian northeastern. Through 103 interviews conducted in six communities in three states, we determined that </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga</span><span class="fontstyle0">, although a name known elsewhere, is only traded as such in the metropolitan area of Natal. In this region, </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga </span><span class="fontstyle0">is caught with drift net and deemed profitable by fishers. We identified both over- and under-differentiation, with </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga </span><span class="fontstyle0">recognized by fishers as five, and sold as three main species, namely </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Opisthonema oglinum</em>, <em>Harengula </em></span><span class="fontstyle0">sp., and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Lile piquiting</span><span class="fontstyle2">a</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">. The larger specimens of two of those species (</span><em><span class="fontstyle2">O. oglinum </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Harengula </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">sp.) were also traded as sardines. We found that most individuals sold as </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga </span><span class="fontstyle0">were juveniles, which might impact the recruitment of some fish species. Due to its unique cultural relevance to the local community of Natal, </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga </span><span class="fontstyle0">could be considered a CIS, which could aid future management or conservation measures.</span><br /><br /> Thais Ferreira-Araújo Priscila Fabiana Macedo Lopes Sergio Maia Queiroz Lima Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-11-18 2020-11-18 10 10.15451/ec2020-11-10.07-1-30 Conservation of Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae): the case of Extractive Reserve Verde para Sempre, Brazil https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/382 <p>The Amazonian manatee (<em>Trichechus inunguis</em>) is the largest aquatic freshwater mammal in South America found in the main rivers of the Amazon Basin. The main objective of this work was to describe the ecological knowledge and use of the Amazonian manatee in the Extractive Reserve Verde para Sempre (RESEX), located in Porto de Moz, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. This study was conducted through semi-structured interviews, free interviews, participant observation and image capture. Thirty-one residents were interviewed in 21 RESEX communities. The interviewees were previously identified by local informants and selected according to their level of knowledge of the species. We collected information on the morphology, behavioral characteristics and feeding habits of manatees, as well as on the uses of the species. According to interviewees, poaching and consumption of manatees is rare, and entanglement of calves in fishing nets is accidental. The headwaters of rivers and streams, that make up the water network of this extractive reserve, are little affected by human activity, and constitute potential areas of refuge for the species. The study shows that the maintenance of the extractive reserve gives good results in the protection of the Amazonian manatee. Even though, these animals are accidentally caught, and sometimes poached. Thus, it corroborates with the statement that sustainable development reserves are efficient strategies for biodiversity conservation. Thus, it is suggested the application of environmental education programs and awareness measures, aimed at the general public.</p> Cinthia Hoffmann Samantha da Silva Angélica Rodrigues Pedro Baía-junior Yvonnick Le Pendu Diva Anelie Guimarães Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-11-26 2020-11-26 10 Current situation and future perspectives of ethnoichthyology in Brazil https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/332 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">A etnoquitologia vem ganhando destaque em várias regiões do mundo, pois tem havido colaborações por meio de estudos que buscam entender os diferentes usos e significados dos peixes entre os diferentes grupos humanos. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Neste estudo, realizamos uma revisão sistemática para identificar a situação atual dos estudos etnoichthyological no Brasil. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">A revisão foi realizada em 2018, utilizando os bancos de dados das seguintes plataformas: Google Scholar (scholar.google.com.br), Scopus (www-scopus.ez89.periodicos.capes.gov.br), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior ( Periódicos da CAPES; www.periodicos.capes.gov.br) e Web of Science (apps-webofknowledge.ez89.periodicos.capes.gov.br). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O intervalo de tempo em que as publicações foram pesquisadas foi de 1990 a 2018. Ao todo, foram encontrados 161 artigos publicados relacionados à etnoquitologia no país. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">A produção científica em etnoquitologia tem mostrado um crescimento significativo ao longo dos anos, com a maioria dos estudos concentrados na região Nordeste do país (38,3%), principalmente no estado da Bahia (16,3%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os campos de estudo incluem ambientes aquáticos marinhos e de água doce, como costas (62%) e rios (61%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">com a maioria dos estudos concentrados na região nordeste do país (38,3%), principalmente no estado da Bahia (16,3%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os campos de estudo incluem ambientes aquáticos marinhos e de água doce, como costas (62%) e rios (61%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">com a maioria dos estudos concentrados na região nordeste do país (38,3%), principalmente no estado da Bahia (16,3%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os campos de estudo incluem ambientes aquáticos marinhos e de água doce, como costas (62%) e rios (61%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local.</span></span></p> Daniel da Silva Ladislau Pauliana Leão de Souza Paulo Henrique Rocha Aride Adriano Teixeira de Oliveira Éder André Gubiani Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-11-27 2020-11-27 10 The media paradox: influence on human shark perceptions and potential conservation impacts https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/426 <p>Sharks, due to some of their characteristics such as prominent teeth and size, cause fear in many people. This feeling can be evidenced due to encounters with these animals or sustained by media information. Currently, negative information on these animals, present in movies and the news, for example, has contributed to a worldwide feeling of "fear" or "anger" towards sharks in the general public. On the other hand, efforts to better understand these animals have increased. In addition to films and documentaries, many scientific and environmental education groups have attempted to improve or alleviate, public perception concerning this significant fear and promote shark conservation. In this context, we analyzed the perceptions of 354 people living in Rio de Janeiro, a coastal city in southeastern Brazil, by applying a structured online questionnaire about sharks. The findings reported herein indicate direct media influence on respondent perceptions, according to the “good” or “bad” image that media vehicles pass on concerning these animals, and that, despite an established fear of sharks, public support for their conservation is maintained. The factor analysis indicated a relationship between older people and more fear, and less fear among people aged 20-40 years. We believe that the lesser fear in the latter is related to the influence of the current media in this age group, such as documentaries and social networks, while older respondents lived in a period with less environmental information and became more susceptible to shark negative films and media, in which the fear persists today.</p> Raquel Lubambo Ostrovski Guilherme Martins Violante Mariana Reis de Brito Jean Louis Valentin Marcelo Vianna Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 10 We need to appreciate common synanthropic plants before they become rare: Case study in Latgale (Latvia) https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/388 <p>Local ecological knowledge holds great potential in contributing to sustainable resource management and conservation activities. For this reason, the authors choose to analyse an ethnobotanical dataset from the Baltic Sea region by exploring the relationship between plants and humans on the basis of three main categories: habitat characteristics, distribution in the wild and plant sensitivity to human impact beyond physical distance. The study provides empirical evidence of widespread usage of so-called common species which are widely distributed in the territory and benefit from human activity. When considering the data via the intensity of use, based on detailed use-reports (DUR), the main category is shown to be apophytes (1001 DUR), followed by anthropophytes (426), hemeradiophores (255) and hemerophobes (54). The authors highlight the co-dependency of plants and humans in the medicinal and wild food domains and stress the need for integrated management strategies where local community knowledge plays a part.</p> <p> </p> <p>Keywords: Common Species; Conservation; Ethnobotany; Synanthropic Plants.</p> Baiba Prūse Raivo Kalle Gabriella Buffa Andra Simanova Ieva Mežaka Renata Sõukand Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 10 10.15451/ec2020-12-10.11-1-26 A historical overview of ethnobotanical data in Albania (1800s-1940s) https://ethnobioconservation.com/index.php/ebc/article/view/453 <p>This paper is an historical review of ethnobotanical notes about wild and cultivated edible plants collected through texts from the end of the 18th century (1796) to the first decades of the 20th century (1930) in the area of Albania under European Turkey, which included parts of today North Macedonia and Kosovo. Albania is an Eastern European country, which has been little studied from historical ethnobotany point of view. For this reason, this paper is focused on foreign authors' works containing data on the use of plants for economic, medicinal, food purposes, and discussing mythological, religious and magical explanations for them. The study is not intended to be an exhaustive review of all materials on this subject, but includes the texts known to us that contain ethnobotanical knowledge. Further scientific research can be carried out in other studies on historical ethnobotany not only by foreign authors but also by Albanians.</p> Anyla Saraçi Robert Damo Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2020-10-10 2020-10-10 10