Ethnobiology and Conservation en-US Ethnobiology and Conservation 2238-4782 Declaração de direito autoral de teste. Freelisting as a suitable method to estimate the composition and harvest rates of hunted species in tropical forests <p>The aim of this study was to test the use of measures obtained from freelisting as possible surrogates of the harvest rate of game species. For this purpose, we interviewed 100 rural and urban hunters in southwestern Amazonia to obtain the frequency of citations of each hunted species through freelisting and gather information on the number of individuals hunted per species in the last five hunting events through hunting recalls. We assessed the relationship between the percentage of records per species by each method through a generalized linear model, and then compared the predicted values obtained from this model with the values observed in our dataset using Pearson’s correlation. During freelisting, forty-three taxa were listed in 608 citations as hunted by the informants. Freelisting provided data on around twice the number of species obtained from recalls. During the last five hunting trips, urban hunters reported the hunting of 164 individuals of 18 species, representing 54.5% of the freelisted species. Rural hunters caught 146 individuals of 21 species, 60.0% of the freelisted species. We found a strong logistic relationship between the harvest rates, i.e., percentage of individuals hunted per species from recalls, and the freelisting percentage citations of game species, with the estimated and observed values of harvest rates highly matching (Pearson's R = 0.98, p &lt; 0.0001). The freelisting method allowed a good estimate of the composition and the harvest rates of hunted species. The formula produced in this study can be used as a reference for further studies, enabling researchers to use freelisting effectively to assess the composition of hunted species and to address the difficulty of obtaining reliable data on species harvest rates in tropical forests, especially in short-term studies and contexts in which hunters distrust research.</p> Marcela Alvares Oliveira Hani Rocha El Bizri Thais Queiroz Morcatty Mariluce Rezende Messias Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 11 10.15451/ec2022-03-11.08-1-9 Chemical characterization and potential use of reptile fat from sustainable programs <p>Reptile meats and fats are used for their medicinal properties and nutritional values ​​perceived through the culture of native peoples, though often with no scientific basis. Providing scientific information about potential medicinal and nutritional use of reptile fats would be a strategy for the full use of wild animals, supporting the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity. The objective of this study was to characterize and chemically compare the fat and oil of individuals of Argentine Black and white tegu (<em>Salvator merianae</em>) and Broad-snouted caiman (<em>Caiman latirostris</em>) from sustainable use and conservation programs. In addition, we evaluated the microbiological characteristics and the antimicrobial activity of the oils obtained by different methods. We used two methodologies to obtain oils, one by fusion extraction and the other by drying-decantation (traditional hunter's method). We obtained the chemical and microbiological characterization of fat and oil of <em> latirostris </em>and <em>S. merianae</em>. All the oil samples presented less than 10 CFU/ml of all the microorganisms tested. <em>C. latirostris</em> and <em>S. merianae</em> oil showed nutritional quality parameters that indicate its potential use. Furthermore, <em>S. merianae</em> oil showed antimicrobial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Candidas tropicalis.</em> No inhibition occurs for the rest of the microorganisms analyzed. <em>C. latirostris</em> oil did not show antimicrobial activity, although the lipid profile does indicate some anti-inflammatory potential. This study demonstrates the potential application of the tested oils and confirms the pharmacological basis for the traditional therapeutic use of <em>S. merianae</em> oil.</p> Pamela M. L. Leiva Florencia E. Valli Carlos I. Piña Marcela A. González Melina S. Simoncini Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 11 10.15451/ec2022-03-11.06-1-12 Human perception towards the association between the domestic rock pigeon and the insect vector of Chagas disease in an urban area of Argentina <p>This article focuses on identifying risk factors through the knowledge, perceptions, and prevention practices of the population regarding the rock pigeon and the vector of Chagas disease (vinchucas) in an urban area of Argentina. The study used interviews of focal groups, family nuclei with nearby nesting sites and without nearby nesting sites. Among the results, some risk factors that contribute to the infestation of vinchucas in houses were identified, such as presence of nesting sites of the rock pigeon, and frequency of cleaning the nests and of fumigation. We show that people that kept their houses clean of nests and routinely disinfected their homes had considerably lower probability of finding vinchucas within their houses. We also identify a general lack of knowledge about risk factors of Chagas disease related to the presence of nesting sites in houses, the form of dispersion of the vector and how to act upon encountering a vinchuca. However, respondents who presented nests in their houses associated the encounter of vinchucas with the presence of nesting sites. The respondents showed high levels of support for programs to control the population of the rock pigeon. It is important that the population at risk of contracting Chagas disease can combat this disease through their daily actions. Promoting better knowledge of risk factors would be an important advancement for community compliance and participation in the fight against Chagas disease.</p> Viviana Noemí Fernández-Maldonado Carlos E. Borghi Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-01-17 2022-01-17 11 10.15451/ec2022-01-11.01-1-10 Deontology or consequentialism? Ethical approach on the use and management of wildlife, illustrated by the use of caimans in Latin America <p>Government decision-makers are frequently faced with the choice of enabling or maintaining conservation programs based on the sustainable use of wild species – usually beneficial to both human populations and the ecosystem - or adhering to the ethical or moral requirements of those who oppose the commercial use of animals. The purpose of this document is to discuss this conflicting situation.</p> <p>The continuing decline in the populations of wild species, as well as the high commercial interest in them, promoted the establishment of Sustainable Use strategies in the mid-20<sup>th</sup> century, which resulted in significant population recovery of several species. However, a growing number of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) deepened the combat against the exploitation of animals for human consumption in all forms, beginning in the early 21<sup>st</sup> century and intensifying in the second decade, based on alleged ethical principles, and claiming for compassion towards wild animals. In this context, it is currently very common to observe government officials tending to ban extractive activities, more often out of fear of condemnation in social networks than based on professional conviction. In the case of management of wild species, this approach is characterized by a lack of scientific basis, empathy with indigenous and rural communities, and of concrete alternative ideas to the modes of exploitation that have been developed so far.</p> Alejandro Larriera Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 11 10.15451/ec2022-03-11.07-1-5 Poaching and illegal wildlife trade in western Argentina <p>Human-wildlife interactions, poaching and illegal wildlife trade in particular, are among the major threats to biodiversity around the world, causing species and population extinctions, zoonotic diseases dissemination, and exotic species invasions, among others. Here we assessed the patterns of poaching and illegal wildlife trade in western Argentina. We reviewed official infringement and verification records for 5 years (2015 to 2019) in San Juan province. We assessed the taxa involved and their conservation status, including wildlife uses and poaching elements. We found 58 taxa involved in 697 records. Most of them were birds (72%), followed by mammals (26%) and reptiles (2%). However, mammals are proportionally the most poached taxon in relation to their richness in the region. We detected that the bird <em>Saltator aurantiirostris</em> was the most prevalent species, appearing in 63% of all records, while <em>Diuca diuca</em>, the second most seized species, appeared in 19% of the infringement proceedings. This study shows that illegal hunting and trafficking are frequent activities affecting many species in the province, and that mammals and birds are the most affected taxa. Mammals were mostly involved in poaching events for their meat and fur, for which individuals were killed. On the other hand, birds were mainly live-captured to be sold as pets. Actions are necessary to protect fauna and raise people’s awareness in order to effectively control these illegal activities and support ecosystem health and integrity. To tackle these problems, it is fundamental to understand the impacts of poaching and trade, improve state control to prevent these activities, and employ non-formal education actions to change people’s behavior towards conservation.</p> Sofía Becerra José Marinero Carlos E. Borghi Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-01-28 2022-01-28 11 10.15451/ec2022-01-11.05-1-15 Is timber management a realistic conservation alternative for indigenous Amazonian communities? <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Indigenous people, who are often economically, socially, and culturally dependent on forests, represent important stakeholders in forest management. Due to high costs, indigenous communities partner with external institutions to harvest timber, often resulting in forest degradation within their territories, internal and external conflicts, and disinterest in starting new timber management projects. Using a standardized methodology to investigate the outcomes of previous community forestry projects presents an opportunity to better understand and potentially resolve further issues. To investigate this issue, we conducted research in the Sinchi Roca I native community in Peru. Our objectives were: (1) to describe the process of timber harvest; (2) to analyze gender differences in local perception of timber management; and (3) to evaluate the outcomes of the timber activity, applying socioeconomic criteria and indicators. Data collection included in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and intra-household surveys. We found that locals partnered with a company for timber harvesting, which led to a sanction from the Peruvian government. Timber harvesting was negatively perceived in the community, with 83.75% of survey respondents dissatisfied with the activity and 88.75% reporting internal and external conflicts due to the presence of the company. Moreover, women did not have a major role in timber harvesting, nor did they actively participate in planning meetings. Results suggest that improving future timber management projects in indigenous communities requires that projects be adapted to local realities and encourage local participation, including training for locals in governance, administration of documents, and negotiations with external stakeholders.</span></p> Lucia Alejandra Fitts Zoila Aurora Cruz-Burga Hannah Legatzke María de los Ángeles La Torre-Cuadros Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 11 10.15451/ec2022-01-11.02-1-31 Chasing for water monitors using dogs in West Java, Indonesia: a recreational hunting or pest control? <p><span class="fontstyle0">Wildlife hunting for subsistence is mostly reported in rural areas and performed by traditional people. Whereas it is also practiced in urban areas and targeted for abundant urban species such as the. water monitor (</span><span class="fontstyle2">Varanus salvator</span><span class="fontstyle0">). Urban hunting may be linked to pest control or pastime activity, which could be beneficial for wildlife management. Our purpose of study was to investigate hunting practice of water monitor in Bogor area, West Java, Indonesia. Data was collected between January and June 2020 to find characteristics and motivation of hunters, their hunting methods, and harvests. We were able to conduct face-to-face interviews with 42 local urban people, whom we followed in four hunting<br />groups during their search for wildlife. Generally, hunters were students, workers, or laborers, who hunt only during the weekends. To capture water monitors, some hunters used dogs and air rifles, while some others used nothing but bare hands. During our observation, 157 individual water monitors were targeted, but only 150 were caught. There were several motivations for hunters to target water monitors apart from being a hobby, i.e., for food and to eliminate pest. Due to its motivation and strategy, we consider the hunt for water monitor in Bogor area mainly for recreational purposes.</span></p> Andhika Prima Yudha Mirza Dikari Kusrini Evy Arida Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-02-09 2022-02-09 11 10.15451/ec2022-01-11.04-1-10 A tale that never loses in the telling: Considerations for the shifting ethnobaseline based on artisanal fisher records from the southwestern Atlantic <p>An ethnoichthyological survey was conducted with fishers from traditional communities distributed between the Região dos Lagos and the northern Fluminense region, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was developed based on semi-structured interviews, with fishers with at least 30 years of experience. Fishers were asked about changes noted for the biological communities with which they interact with, such as reports concerning abundance changes, the disappearance of certain species or the insertion of new ones, as well as weight and size changes. The reported ethno-names were confirmed at the specific level whenever possible through photographs and complementary descriptions. Eighty-five fishers aged between 39 to 83 years old were interviewed. Fishing activity times ranged from 30 to 68 years, averaging 40.6 years. Fishers reported differing estimates from what was expected according to the known length-weight relationship for the reported species. In general, length estimates were closer to the expected for medium-sized fish from 0.3 m to 1 m. Sixty-nine ethno-names and their variations were identified, associated with 58 fish categories. Of this total, denominations were associated to 47 local fauna species or genera, while one ethno-name was not linked to any taxonomic identification. This study is the result of research financed by the Brazilian Fund for Biodiversity and the Pescarte Environmental Education Project, a mitigation measure required by the Federal Environmental Licensing, conducted by IBAMA.</p> Sérgio Ricardo Santos Márcio Luís Chagas Macedo Thaís Rodrigues Maciel Gabriel Barros Gonçalves Souza Laís da Silva Almeida Otto Bismarck Fazzano Gadig Marcelo Vianna Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-01-26 2022-01-26 11 10.15451/ec2022-01-11.03-1-20 Reducing Wild Meat Sales and Promoting Local Food Security: Lessons Learnt from a Behavior Change Campaign in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo <p>Marketing strategies to promote behavioral change are increasingly used to reduce the unsustainable use of wild meat. One of the mayor keys for success of behavior change campaigns lies in the choice of the channel for communication and the messaging. In this research, we present a behavioral change campaign implemented in Yangambi, Democratic Republic of Congo framed around an integrated conservation and development objective: improve food security in rural communities, reduce the unsustainable use of wildlife for food and promote locally grown pork and chicken. The campaign was co-developed based on the research team’s knowledge of the hunting system in the study area and the participation of key local stakeholders (village leaders, hunters and their families). It used participatory community theater, various printed materials, radio and face to face interactions. We evaluated the efficiency and clarity of messaging for channels used through semi-structured interviews with hunters, households and wildlife traders. We found that participatory community theater resulted in increased clarity and understanding among hunters and households. Moreover, community theater promoted word-of-mouth communication that reached an audience well beyond the location where the theater was held. Messages that were framed positively and used amusing channels of communication triggered positive receptiveness by our audience. Using local languages, avoiding written materials for illiterate audiences, and using repetitive means of communication may be among the strategies that could help increase the clarity of communication messages, particularly for sensitive topics such as this one. Our work calls for more lessons learnt from the ground about the most appropriate communication channels and messages, keeping in mind the social and cultural background of the audience, and ensuring that messages trigger emotions that lead to the desired changes.</p> Nathalie van Vliet Ahtziri Gonzalez Jonas Nyumu Jonas Muhindo Evi Paemelaere Paolo Cerutti Robert Nasi Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-04-11 2022-04-11 11 10.15451/ec2022-04-11.09-1-14 Changing trends: Beliefs and attitudes toward sharks and implications for conservation <p>As history shows, and contrary to modern western society’s feelings, sharks were once respected and worshipped. Sensationalized media coverage negatively impacts the public’s perception of sharks and lack of information about management and conservation options negatively impacts policy makers’ ability to keep shark populations healthy. Understanding that people’s attitudes about sharks will influence their willingness to find a way to coexist with them, it is essential to acknowledge these attitudes when developing conservation measures. Just as risk management policies must adapt to new evidence-based information, so must shark conservation efforts adapt to the realities of public opinion. This perspective review, focused on the psychological aspects of human-shark interactions, highlights some of the current research, mostly from Australia and other countries where those interactions are more salient, on the beliefs and attitudes people have toward sharks. With this review, we hope to help policymakers and stakeholders, such as Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs) and the zoological community to better address some of the shark conservation challenges ahead.</p> Joao Neves Terran McGinnis Jean-Christophe Giger Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-05-19 2022-05-19 11 10.15451/ec2022-05-11.11-1-11 Land-use, abuse, and institutional attempts for correcting human-nature relationships: Europe vs The Americas <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Warnings regarding pollution, soil-fertility </span><span style="font-size: medium;">losses</span><span style="font-size: medium;">, mass extinction, Climate Change, and the</span><span style="font-size: medium;">ir</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">effects on</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> humans </span><span style="font-size: medium;">are widely known since at least 1970, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">s</span><span style="font-size: medium;">till land-abuse pervasively remains. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">W</span><span style="font-size: medium;">e aimed to contribute to understand </span><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>why</em></span> <span style="font-size: medium;">in order to</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> explor</span><span style="font-size: medium;">e</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> how to reduce </span><span style="font-size: medium;">land-abuse</span><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">W</span><span style="font-size: medium;">e critically compare</span><span style="font-size: medium;">d</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">history, habitats, and land-uses of the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Americas </span><span style="font-size: medium;">with</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> both Alpine and Lowland Europe </span><span style="font-size: medium;">focusing on</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> the causes and consequences of land-abuse</span><span style="font-size: medium;">. We chronologically analyze</span><span style="font-size: medium;">d</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">development of the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">recent</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> European efforts for re-appraising ancestral, more sustainable land-uses (AD 1938-2018). </span><span style="font-size: medium;">M</span><span style="font-size: medium;">illionaire profits </span><span style="font-size: medium;">have fixed a dominant culture of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">subordination of nature and people to a role of mere </span><span style="font-size: medium;">commodity-</span><span style="font-size: medium;">producers </span><span style="font-size: medium;">in the Americas, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">making</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">difficult for</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">environmentalism</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> to penetrate into </span><span style="font-size: medium;">decision-making</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and institutions. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Low-scale, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">sustainable</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> agriculture </span><span style="font-size: medium;">remain</span><span style="font-size: medium;">s</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> traditionally</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> practiced by </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Neotropical and Alpine </span><span style="font-size: medium;">indigenous peoples, but </span><span style="font-size: medium;">became</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> increasingly abandoned by lowland </span><span style="font-size: medium;">E</span><span style="font-size: medium;">uropeans </span><span style="font-size: medium;">and Americas’ landlords </span><span style="font-size: medium;">since the first Industrial Revolution. The most effective European efforts for conserving the environment emerged and developed </span><span style="font-size: medium;">as a sort of</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> interplay with </span><span style="font-size: medium;">the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">teaching </span><span style="font-size: medium;">of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Ecology and Conservation in universities </span><span style="font-size: medium;">that </span><span style="font-size: medium;">train</span><span style="font-size: medium;">ed</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">prospects of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">both political activists and decision makers.</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">A</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> result i</span><span style="font-size: medium;">s</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">preeminently </span><span style="font-size: medium;">scholarly-made,</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> top-down </span><span style="font-size: medium;">impulse</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">to sustainable land-use in </span><span style="font-size: medium;">West</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">Europe. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Instead</span><span style="font-size: medium;">, the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">most effective</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">environmentalists</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">the </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Americas’ </span><span style="font-size: medium;">are </span><span style="font-size: medium;">not biologists but </span><span style="font-size: medium;">grassrooted movements </span><span style="font-size: medium;">culturally </span><span style="font-size: medium;">influenced or </span><span style="font-size: medium;">directly </span><span style="font-size: medium;">led by</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">indigenous peoples. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Nowadays</span><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Europe </span><span style="font-size: medium;">provides</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> finnancial and economic support to the traditional agriculture of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">it</span><span style="font-size: medium;">s</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> indigenous </span><span style="font-size: medium;">farmers</span><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Europe-emulators of the</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> Americas</span> <span style="font-size: medium;">shou</span><span style="font-size: medium;">ld seek to outbalance land-abuse by supporting </span><span style="font-size: medium;">and learning from </span><span style="font-size: medium;">the land-uses of Americas’ indigenous farmers too</span><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></span></span></p> Edgardo I. Garrido-Pérez David Tella-Ruiz Katia Laura Sidali Juan G. Lincango-Vega Luisa M. Vélez-Sabando Luis D. Andrade-Alcívar Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-06-22 2022-06-22 11 10.15451/ec2022-06-11.13-1-15 Evolutionary ethnobiology <p>Ethnobiology is a discipline that deals with understanding the relationship between human beings and biota. The strong interdisciplinary component of ethnobiology allows it to interact with different fields of knowledge. The evolutionary approach in ethnobiology is not completely absent, however it lacks systematization, which has been recently proposed. From this proposal, the evolutionary ethnobiology emerged. This approach studies the relations between human groups and biota from theoretical scenarios of ecology and evolution. Here we present the evolutionary ethnobiology, its key concepts, the theoretical scenarios with which it dialogues.</p> Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior Patricia Muniz Medeiros Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 11 10.15451/ec2022-04-11.10-1-8 Traditional knowledge applied to hunting and breeding of the vulnerable Yellow-footed Tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulatus) in the Cazumbá-Iracema Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil <p>Hunting is intensely practiced in the Amazon and is related to the survival of riverside communities as a source of income and food. This study was conducted at Resex Cazumbá-Iracema between June and November, in the dry season and the beginning of the flood period. Twenty-one families were monitored, six hunting events were followed, and 23 C. denticulatus individuals were recorded, all of which were categorized as opportunistic. Among the studied individuals, 11 were males and 12 females, and those with a carapace over 40 cm were considered adults. The tortoise is captured mainly for food, but there are beliefs concerning its medicinal use in treating inflammatory diseases. Reptiles, in general, are among the least hunted species for food in the Amazon. This preference may be related to the higher mammals’ biomass and the birds’ species richness. However, its importance for consumption may vary according to the location.</p> <p> </p> Marcela Álvares Oliveira Ana Paula Vitoria Costa-Rodrigues Armando Muniz Calouro Copyright (c) 2022 Ethnobiology and Conservation 2022-05-02 2022-05-02 11 10.15451/ec2022-05-11.12-1-11