Ethnobiology and Conservation en-US Declaração de direito autoral de teste. (Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega Alves) (Itamar Barbosa de Lima) Fri, 21 Aug 2020 18:55:29 +0000 OJS 60 The southern river otter (<i>Lontra provocax</i>): insights from the perspective of Andean Patagonian ethnozoology <p>Animals play a significant role in many cultures around the world. The southern river otter <em>Lontra provocax</em> (known locally as the “huillín”) is endemic to southern Argentina and Chile, and is currently in danger of extinction. Mapuche communities have always lived closely alongside their animal resources, generating unique bonds with them. The objective of this work is to obtain an overview of the importance given to this species in the literature of the region with regard to the nature-culture connection. A systematic bibliographical review was carried out using reference libraries and web browsers. From all the sources analysed, 110 were selected which held biocultural information. The main approach used was ecological; however, the ethnohistorical texts provided the richest information on the bond between this otter and humans. The Mapuche name “huillín” appears in all the publications analysed, showing its continuity over time. Of all the zootoponyms found, 87.5% were Chilean and 12.5% were Argentine. The Argentine case is found in Nahuel Huapi lake, and is worthy of note as its name could involve the huillín. The results of this work increase our knowledge of the biocultural heritage of our region, and enable us to reflect on the associated historical and political processes.</p><p> </p> Carla Pozzi, Ana H. Ladio Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Monkeying around Anthropocene: Patterns of human-nonhuman primates’ interactions in Brazil <p>In Anthropocene, approximately 70% of all terrestrial ecosystems are highly modified by human activities and more than a half of all primate’s species in the world are endangered. Here we present results of a systematic review on published articles with an Ethnoprimatology approach, aiming to assess the nationwide pattern and quality of proximity/interaction between human-nonhuman primates in Brazil, a country vulnerable to high deforestation rates while having the highest primate biodiversity in the world. The first article was published 29 years ago and add up to only 36 published articles until present time. Most studies were conducted in Atlantic forest, but higher number and diversity of interactions was described for Amazon. Sapajus, being a generalist and semi-terrestrial primate, was the most cited genus and had the greatest diversity of interactions, including garbage foraging and crop-raiding. Alouatta, the second most cite one, had more symbolic/mystic relationships. Some specialized or forest-specific primates are scarcely mentioned. Studies carried out in both rural and urban environment are almost equal in number but showed differences in types of interactions they describe: garbage foraging, crop-raiding by primates and food offering by humans happening in more urbanized areas and symbolic/mystic relationships and beliefs around nonhuman primates described in rural/indigenous settlements. We urge future studies to describe interactions and proximity carefully specifying the context where they occur. It is relevant to maintain the growing curve of Ethnoprimatological studies in Brazil as a way to aggregate information about different populations of species and help to base conservation strategies of co-existence.</p> Vitoria Fernandes Nunes, Priscila Macedo Lopes, Renata Gonçalves Ferreira Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Tue, 04 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A historical overview of ethnobotanical data in Albania (1800s-1940s) <p>This paper is an historical review of ethnobotanical notes about wild and cultivated edible plants collected through texts from the end of the 18th century (1796) to the first decades of the 20th century (1930) in the area of Albania under European Turkey, which included parts of today North Macedonia and Kosovo. Albania is an Eastern European country, which has been little studied from historical ethnobotany point of view. For this reason, this paper is focused on foreign authors' works containing data on the use of plants for economic, medicinal, food purposes, and discussing mythological, religious and magical explanations for them. The study is not intended to be an exhaustive review of all materials on this subject, but includes the texts known to us that contain ethnobotanical knowledge. Further scientific research can be carried out in other studies on historical ethnobotany not only by foreign authors but also by Albanians.</p> Anyla Saraçi, Robert Damo Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Sat, 10 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 What factors can influence children's perception of forests today and in the future? Ethnobiological studies regarding the environmental perception of children are still infrequent, creating a gap in the understanding of the factors that influence the process of developing perception in this phase of life. Therefore, this study sought to verify the influence of some factors, such as contact with natural environments, gender, and age, in the representation of elementary school students, aged between 11 and 15 years, about remnants of the Atlantic Forest, at present and future. We observed that the elements represented by children did not differ in terms of contact with natural environments, but those who live in rural areas, represented more elements of degradation. In addition, the children studied here did not show significant differences in environmental representations between genders, and the increase in age indicated the loss of ecological knowledge about the natural components of a forest environment, giving space for a more utilitarian and degraded view of it. In general, we can state that children have precise perceptions about forest environments, and a negative perspective regarding the future of forests. Furthermore, certain factors may come to have a strong influence on their perception, especially with advancing age and the strengthening of social roles established culturally for different genders, which will strongly influence decision-making in favor of forests in the future. Thiago Braz Barbosa de Sousa, Taline Cristina da Silva, Marcelo Alves Ramos Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Tue, 13 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Zootherapeutic practices in the Amazon Region: chemical and pharmacological studies of Green-anaconda fat (<em>Eunectes murinus</em>) and alternatives for species conservation <p>The treatment of diseases with animal resources or their derivatives is a traditional practice worldwide, representing a wide field of research for the elaboration of strategies of management and conservation of the fauna, and contributing to the search for sustainable therapy alternatives. This study presents the therapeutic applications of animal fats to the treatment of several diseases in Pimenteiras do Oeste, state of Rondônia, Brazil. Twelve animals including: mammals, fishes, reptiles and birds are reported as a source of medicinal lard for the treatment of respiratory illnesses (asthma, flu, bronchitis, cough), rheumatism, and earache and as a healing agent (dislocation and wounds). The ethnopharmacological focus of the study was on Green-anaconda fat (<em>Eunectes murinus</em>), which stands out for its frequent local use and the lack of previous chemical studies. The chemical composition of <em>E. murinus</em> fat was analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography, both coupled to mass spectrometry. The main fatty acids identified were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids, which were also predominant in the composition of the triglycerides. Pharmacological analysis of Green-anaconda fat showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect, which is related to its use by traditional communities. Having confirmed the pharmacological potential of Green-anaconda fat, its fatty acid composition was used as a parameter in the search for vegetable oils from the Amazon Region with a similar composition. This comparative analysis can be of help by proposing therapeutic alternatives for the Amazonian population. The use of plant sources can contribute to the conservation of the aforementioned species.</p> Camila Ferreira Abrão, Danilo Ribeiro de Oliveira, Paulo Passos, Carla Valéria Rodrigues Pereira Freitas, Amanda Ferreira Santana, Marilene Lopes da Rocha, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro da Silva, Luzineide Wanderley Tinoco Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Do Harvest Practices of Bromeliads and Forest Management in Sierra Norte of Oaxaca Have a Negative Effect on their Abundance and Phorophyte Preference? <p class="Normal1">The present study recorded inhabitants’ traditional knowledge and uses of bromeliads and the phorophytes present in their ecosystems in two localities of Oaxaca. We also evaluated the effect of harvest practices on the abundance and distribution of the populations of these epiphytes on different phorophytes, considering the existence, or not, of a Forest Management Program. Structured interviews were conducted with 60 adults to identify the species of bromeliads of greater cultural importance (<strong>BGCI</strong>). We identified recurrent harvest sites (<strong>RHS</strong>) and occasional harvest sites (<strong>OHS</strong>) in order to estimate the abundance and phorophyte preference of <strong>BGCI</strong>. Traditional names and uses of epiphytes and phorophytes are described; it was identified that <em>Tillandsia deppeana</em>, <em>T. lucida</em> and <em>Catopsis occulta</em> had the highest <strong>BGCI</strong> in both localities. Their populations showed greater abundance values in <strong>OHS</strong> in both localities compared with <strong>RHS</strong> (χ2 gl6 = 296.99, p &lt; 0.05). <em>T. deppeana</em> and <em>T. lucida</em> were shown to prefer <em>Quercus elliptica</em>, while distribution of <em>C. occulta</em> showed a preference for <em>Q. rugosa</em> and <em>Pinus oocarpa</em>; however, phorophyte preference patterns of bromeliads may be influenced by the intensity of forest management. Decrease in abundance as the size category increased was recorded in three species, as well as the adult harvest. Finally, the inhabitants of both communities demonstrate similarities in their traditional knowledge, the intensity of harvest may be a factor influencing their abundance and preference of phorophytes, but also forest management programs determine the availability of bromeliads populations, due to the specificity phorophytes that some bromeliads exhibited.</p> Yetlanezi Velazquez-Cardenas, Beatriz Rendón-Aguilar, Adolfo Espejo-Serna Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Thu, 11 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Urban trading of medicinal plants in San Salvador de Jujuy (Argentina): How does species composition vary between different biocultural supply sites? <p>Studies related to the intrinsic biocultural variation of medicinal plant use in urban contexts are necessary for public health purposes. In this work we ask: What types of supply site offer medicinal plants in the pluricultural city of San Salvador de Jujuy? What are the most important medicinal plants commercialized in the city? How do species composition and their cultural importance vary between biocultural suppliers? The research followed an ethnobotanical approach and techniques, particularly participant observation, semi-structured and structured interviews with salespersons, and prior informed consent. We also identified plant material, considering the 10 plants most cited by the participants as having most commercial importance. Three types of medicinal plant supply site were identified: pharmacies, herbal stores and traditional informal sales stalls (informal vendors). Eighty-two medicinal species and two algal species were the most sold in this city. Total species richness differed between different types of biocultural supply site, herbal stores selling the highest richness (54 species), followed by informal vendors (43 species) and finally, pharmacies (36 species). The similarity index for the three sites revealed that herbal stores and informal vendors shared the highest number of species (46%). Through a GLM (generalized lineal model) we found that the supply sites most likely to sell native plants were the informal vendors. Despite the influence of global patterns of use, the supply sites varied in their intrinsic characteristics and offered different resources. Traditional informal vendors are fundamental to the Jujuy population for the supply of unique native species. This phenomenon has marked consequences for public health, highlighting the essential biocultural role played by this supply point in maintaining the traditional Andean health system.</p> Marina Acosta, Daniela Alejandra Lambaré, Ana H. Ladio Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Thu, 28 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Management of native and exotic plant species with edible fruits in a rural community in a protected area of NW Patagonia Management practices are very sensitive to socio-environmental change and the influence of market society. This case study was carried out in the Cuyín Manzano rural community, situated in a protected area within the North Patagonian UNESCO biosphere reserve. We investigate the differential practices applied by the community with regard to management of native and introduced species with edible fruits using semi-structured and free interviews in 11 homes (80%). A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was also performed to validate the field results. The data was analyzed quali-quantitatively, in the latter case with Generalized Linear Models. A total richness of 27 species was found, of which 11 were native and 17 introduced. Native plants were mainly managed by gathering and tolerance, while exotic species were not only harvested, but also protected, sown and transplanted, and plants inherited from forebears were cared for. Management intensity varied according to origin, being greater for the introduced species. In addition, the species of greater cultural importance were also those which experienced a higher number of management practices, with possible processes of incipient domestication being particularly notable for two native plants. Exotic plants have a higher probability of being managed, and with greater intensity, than native ones, even though the latter have had a much longer history of use. Our results show patterns of diversification of edible fruit species through different management practices. For inhabitants, these practices represent significant situations of contact with nature, which enable traditions based on local knowledge to be maintained. Melina F. Chamorro, Ana H. Ladio Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cross-scale analysis of diversification processes in fuelwood use in three contrasting ecoregions of Argentina (Chaco, Pampa and Patagonia): the role of exotic species in subsistence <p>Fuelwood is one of the main sources of energy for rural populations in many environments and ecosystems. However, little research has been done on the diversification processes associated with the use of woody plants for fuel (UWPF). This study was carried out in rural communities of three eco-regions of Argentina (the phytogeographical provinces of Chaco, Pampa and Patagonia). Open and semi-structured interviews were performed in 72 households, focusing on the current richness of fuelwood, supply strategies and gathering sites. The biogeographical origin of the mentioned species was established, and the pressure of use on fuel wood was evaluated indirectly. The results were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. A total of 78 species was recorded, of which 51 were native and 27 exotic. Gathering is the most common supply strategy in all the ecoregions studied, fuelwood being obtained mainly in sites with little human intervention. Pressure of use did not vary between native and exotic species. A generalized linear model showed that the use of native versus exotic species varied according to the ecoregion and the level of human intervention in the supply area, while acquisition strategies were similar for both native and exotic species in all eco-regions. Each region presented different use patterns, but the areas with most human intervention were always used to gather exotic plants. In line with our hypothesis, the diversification processes in UWPF varied according to ecoregion, each area having intrinsic characteristics associated with its history. The exotic species currently used as fuel wood increase the repertory of plants recognised and used by the local population.</p> N. David Jiménez-Escobar, María Belén Doumecq, Daniela Morales, Ana H. Ladio Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Multiple assessments to value wild animals in the analysis of human-wildlife relationships: a case study in the Dry Chaco of Córdoba, Argentina <p>Because different perceptions of wildlife are usually involved in decision making processes on the use of environmental commons and in human choices, assigning an importance value to wildlife can be a relevant issue to discuss. We propose to broaden&nbsp; the concept of cultural value (CV) considering the trade-offs between the positive and negative Nature’s Contributions to People including trade-offs influenced by near-past contexts. In a rural community of the Dry Chaco and aiming at knowing the importance of wildlife in people´s lives, we conducted free listings and semi-structured interviews. We calculated the cognitive salience (S) and five CV indexes (differing from one another in the number and types of values); the number of citations of each ethnospecies was used as an estimator of the local knowledge on wildlife. Local inhabitants value wild species by considering the satisfaction of material needs, immaterial aspects, and/or the damages that certain species may cause to their own goods or commons. The ethnospecies most widely and frequently used with material purpose in the near past and at present, and those considered the most harmful, showed the highest salience values. The CV index that integrates both positive and negative assessments was positively correlated with cognitive salience; this relationship support the results showing that cognitive salience it is not only conditioned by positive assessments but as a variable that captures the multiple assessments of the fauna, including the negative ones.</p> Daniela Tamburini, Fernando Zamudio, Daniel Cáceres Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 06 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Can cultural significance in plants be explained by domestication and usage spaces? A study case from a coffee producing community in Huila, Colombia <p>This study was aimed at delving into the relationship between botanical species with cultural significance and both the managed environments they inhabit (Coffee plantation<em>, </em>Forest, Garden, Orchard, Market) and their origin (Wild, Cultivated), as established by people from <em>vereda</em> Las Delicias, Colombia. We tested the hypothesis that cultivated plants from the coffee plantations would have the highest cultural significance. One hundred and ninety-two plants were recorded by common name, however, upon taxonomic analysis, 238 botanical species were established. The most relevant spaces in terms of diversity were the coffee plantation (91 useful plants) and the garden (81 useful plants). Regarding origin, most of the plants were cultivated (151), with only 50 wild species. Likewise, there is a significantly larger cultural significance of coffee plantantion plants than there is garden plants and forest plants. Furthermore, cultivated plants have a significantly larger cultural significance than do wild plants. In conclusion, there is a diversity of useful plants within coffee plantation systems, which guarantee family livelihoods, diversify income sources, and protect the natural resources of the region. Finally, the importance of coffee (<em>Coffea arabica</em>) comes from its role as a customary heritage for this community, which strengthens agricultural, environmental, and cooperative processes after each generation.</p> Jeison Herley Rosero-Toro, Hilda del Carmen Dueñas Gómez, Felipe Ruan-Soto, Dídac Santos-Fita Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Mon, 28 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Local community knowledge and perceptions in the Colombian Caribbean towards Amphibians in urban and rural settings: tools for biological conservation <p>Human perceptions vary between rural and urban environments, determining the degree to which people are able to coexist with biodiversity. It is important to identify the sociodemographic factors that determine these local perceptions to adjust amphibian conservation strategies in recognition of the particular conditions of different human communities. In this research, the effect of the urban or rural location where people live and sociodemographic variables in the knowledge and perceptions about amphibians was determined. The data were collected through individual semi-structured surveys of 401 participants. We measured seven response variables through the Likert scale, which ranges from 1 (totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree). For each response variable, a multivariate analysis of variance was performed. Ninety-two percent of people correctly recognized frogs and toads as amphibians, but there was confusion in classifying caecilians and salamanders within this group or including reptiles within amphibians. This confusion was more evident for women from urban locality. Positive perceptions of amphibians varied between urban and rural locality for young adults, people with a high school education level, and people without formal education. Negative beliefs varied between urban and rural locations for women, adolescents, young adults, and professionals. Half of the people accepted information on the conservation of amphibians. Positive perceptions of people about amphibians should be used as a flag to strengthen environmental educational strategies, mainly in urban locations. The results suggest that amphibian conservation plans that aim to inform and educate the public should be focused differently for age groups, genders, and educational level for people in urban and rural locations.</p> Danny Vergara-Rios, Andres Camilo Montes-Correa, J. Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Miguel De Luque-Villa, Pedro E. Cattan, Hernan Dario Granda Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Tue, 11 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Landscape management among the Guarani of the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina: the case of the Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman (Arecaceae) palm tree <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The study of the management practices that different Guarani settlements have carried out in the environment over time constitutes one of the objectives of ethnoecology and historical ecology as the way through which these communities obtain forest resources affects landscape settings. In this work, based on a local classification system of the ontogenic stages of the pindo palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman (Arecaceae), we study the effects of traditional management practices on the unity of the pindoty landscape - plant communities with a high concentration of this species. We evaluated the degree to which two morphometric variables used in the measurements of woody tree species, diameter at chest height (DBH) and total height (H), explain the local classification. As a result, in the environment of four Guarani settlements (Ita Piru, Kurupayty, Pindo Poty, and Yvyra Pepe Poty), the production of edible larvae favors temporary changes in the pindoty landscape unit since it produces changes in pindo population’s structure – (abundances by class size). In addition, we discuss some aspects of the pindoty units and their anthropogenic nature concluding that their evolution results from the Guarani cyclical cosmological conception.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Jorge J. Araujo, José L. Rojas, Héctor A. Keller, Norma Hilgert Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Wed, 28 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Can socioeconomic factors influence the establishment of information mutation in local medical systems? A case study on the use of plant complexes <p>Information mutations are unintended changes in information that can lead to the establishment of poorly adapted cultural traits in local medical systems. The use of plant mixtures in local medical systems, such as “bottles and lickers” could it be an important model to understand this phenomena, since the variability of information associated an only one plant mixture is high and may lead to an higher occurrence of error in the social transmition. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the socioeconomic variables: gender, age, and education influences the amount of information mutations on the knowledge of plant mixtures. Data collection followed the ethical parameters for research with human beings and consisted of two different applications of semi-structured interviews to access and analyze the Information Unit (IU) in regards to the passivity of information mutation between the individual learner and the individual giving information. We obtained 141 types of plant mixtures mentioned in the study. When analyzing our variables, age and education influenced the number of mutations (p&lt;0.0008), showing that younger individuals had information with more information mutations about plant mixtures, and less educated individuals had less information mutations than those with more education (p&lt;0.006). Thus, we encourage ethnobotanical research in other regions of the country to contribute to the effectiveness of the information transmitted about medicinal plants in local medical systems.</p> Mateus Rocha da Silva Pereira, Janilo Ítalo Melo Dantas, André Luiz Borba do Nascimento, Taline Cristina Silva Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Differences and similarities in local ecological knowledge about rays among fishers, residents, and tourists <p>Ray species have been globally threatened due to high fishing pressure and habitat loss. In southern Brazil fisheries, despite many ray species are protected by law and usually non-targeted species, they are captured along with commercially important species. However, as in all of Brazil, there is evidence that rays are consumed, that is, there is a demand for meat from these animals, which intensifies the risk of extinction. Marine ethnobiology is an alternative approach to better understand these organisms, considering the traditional empirical knowledge of fishers and local communities. Our objective is to evaluate the knowledge of local residents, fishers, and tourists about the occurrence, distribution, reproduction, and feeding of ray species and also ray consumption among them. We hypothesized that fishers and locals have a deeper ecological knowledge about rays than tourists, and fishers should know more than residents. Individual interviews were conducted for three consecutive days at Armação beach, Florianópolis, Brazil. We asked people about ray biology and ecology based on questionnaires. Each respondent was categorized into three groups: fishers, locals, and tourists; and ranked according to an index of ecological knowledge of rays. The fishers had greater knowledge about rays, followed by residents and tourists. Additionally, fishers and locals consume rays, even the trade is prohibited locally, evidencing the need for legal enforcement. The fishers’ knowledge may be essential for management of fish stocks, contributing to sustainable fishing and species conservation. In contrast, the tourists' lack of knowledge evidences the need to raise awareness of these animals. </p> Ricardo Franco Freitas, Lucas Peixoto Machado, Renato Hajenius Aché de Freitas, Natalia Hanazaki Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Tue, 25 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The snake fauna of the most threatened region of the Atlantic Forest: natural history, distribution, species richness and a complement to the Atlas of Brazilian Snakes <p>The Atlantic Forest is one of the richest tropical forests in the world, with a high endemism rate of vertebrates, including several snakes. The snake fauna of the Atlantic Forest is rich and complex, presenting differences in fauna composition along its extension. The existence of at least four endemism centers along this forest is well documented and supported by data of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. The Pernambuco Endemism Center (PEC) is the most septentrional region of the Atlantic Forest, and it contacts areas with transitional forests and arid landscapes (Caatinga) which along with altitudinal variation enable a unique snake fauna for this region. In this study we provide: (i) an updated list of species, detailed information about natural history, as well as a detailed geographic distribution for all species recorded in the PEC; (ii) a comparison between the snake fauna of the PEC with other regions of the Atlantic Forest. The snake fauna of the PEC is composed by 86 species of 8 families. The results showed that most of the species recorded in the PEC are distributed close to the coast, probably due to the proximity of the research centers, but also due to the present distribution of the remnants close to the coast. The forest remnants in the highlands (<em>Brejos de Altitude</em>) harbors a high diversity of species with high similarity with the coastal forests. We found a strong separation between the snake fauna of assemblages located in southwestern and northeastern Brazil, indicating clear characteristics of the snake fauna of the PEC.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gentil Alves Filho, Marco Freitas, Washington Luiz, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa, Thais Barreto Guedes, Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Tue, 23 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Human-bat interactions in central Colombia: Regional perceptions of a worldwide fragile life zone <p>The study of human relationships with other components of the landscape allows us to understand the dynamics of ecological communities and biodiversity. Although there has been an increase in ethnobiological studies, little is known about the interaction between humans and bats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and attitudes about bats by people in the fragile life zone of the tropical dry forest of Colombia. We selected four representative areas and evaluated three different aspects: (1) biological and ecological knowledge, (2) uses and cultural beliefs, and (3) interactions between humans and bats. The data were collected through surveys of 18 questions to 197 people with a gender ratio close to parity. The data obtained are presented as descriptive statistics by using a generalized linear model (GLM). The results showed that people's knowledge and attitude towards bats depend on the covariates of education and gender of the respondents. Women (t= 3.76; P=0.004) and people with a higher education level (t=3.65; P&lt;0.004) had positive attitudes towards bats. Although the ecosystem services provided by bats were clearly recognized, the need for conservation were not as obvious. These results indicate that human-bat relationships are complex and may be the result of multiple social and cultural factors. Likewise, these cross-cultural perceptions must be understood and addressed in the development of actions that promote the conservation of bats in tropical forests.</p> Leidy Azucena Ramírez Fráncel, Leidy Viviana García-Herrera, Giovany Guevara, Sergio Losada-Prado, Burton K. Lim, Francisco Antonio Villa-Navarro, Gladys Reinoso-Flórez Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The complex social and legal context of the use of live birds in Mexico <p><span class="fontstyle0">The use of song and ornamental birds (SOB) as pets is a traditional and commercial activity in Mexico. This paper is part of a larger research which aim was to analyze the commercial use of birds. The objective is to depict the complexity of the stake-holders system involved in the activity of live birds selling in Mexico. We display in diagrams the main stakeholders involved in the activity, highlighting stakeholders acting in several or three spatial scales (micro- or regional, meso- or national, and macroor global) and the extent of their influence in management. Depicting the complexity in the use of SOB is essential to better understand the decision-making process and improve it in the future.</span> </p> Blanca Roldán-Clarà, Claudia Leyva, Ileana Espejel, Xavier López-Medellín Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Connecting worlds: indigenous territories, habitat suitability and conservation of the three large carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora) of Oaxaca, Mexico <p class="Standard">Human and wildlife conflicts pose conservation challenges for several charismatic species worldwide. Given their close long-standing interactions with wildlife, indigenous communities set an interesting framework to identify factors establishing these relationships. The first step is to account the perceptions and symbolisms of indigenous communities to define and complement conservation efforts. We used multi-temporal and multi-criteria analyses to assess species habitat suitability of three large carnivores (jaguar, puma, and coyote), and quantified the overlap with the Mixtec and Zapotec indigenous territories in southern Mexico. We observed a positive and proactive relationship between indigenous communities’ self-identification and a high species habitat suitability for the conservation of these large carnivores in the Sierra Norte, Sierra Sur, Coastal, and Mixtec regions. Given that most of these areas occur outside natural protected areas, the inclusion of indigenous communities in the management and planning of their territory is crucial for preserving their ethnocentric vision and ensuring long-term conservation of these charismatic large carnivores and their habitat.</p> Emilia Guerrero-Montes de Oca, Camilo Gómez Hoyos, Fabián Mejía Franco, Francisco Javier Botello López, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Andrés Arias-Alzate Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Mon, 05 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sensory attributes of native stingless bee honey (Plebeia molesta): first approaches to the characterization and preference of local consumers. <p>The sensory quality of a food is related to the consumer’s ethno-social and idiosyncratic conditions. &nbsp;In this study, honeys from three different environments in the Chaco region of Córdoba (Argentina) were described qualitatively and quantitatively by specialized evaluators and rural peasant. Honeys with a wide diversity of sensory attributes were evidenced. The samples from Salinas Coast were characterized by high fluidity, those from Serrano Forest by quantity of crystals, and those from Plain Forest by the greatest persistence of taste. The rural population used some shared descriptors for honeys from similar geographical origin. Most rural consumers distinguished the honey from <em>A. mellifera</em>, <em>Plebeia</em> nov. sp. and <em>P. molesta, </em>which were also the preferred ones. We analyzed the results in relation to the Socio-ecological Theory of Maximization and concluded that the sensory components of <em>P. molesta </em>honeys allow their differentiation according to environment of origin and from honeys of other melliferous insects, which together with farmers´ idiosyncratic factors model the selection of the product.</p> Melisa Gabriela Geisa, María Cristina Ciappini, Norma Inés Hilgert Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Wed, 09 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Voluntary scuba diving as a method for monitoring invasive exotic marine species in Ilha Grande Bay–RJ, Brazil. Monitoring surveys provide data needed to assess ecosystem conditions in places where bioinvasion occurs. The collection of data by volunteer researchers (citizen science) is an alternative for scientists and research agencies that lack information but do not have sufficient financial resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate marine monitoring using voluntary recreational scuba diving to identify invasive exotic marine species at eight diving sites distributed between the north of Ilha Grande and the municipality of Angra dos Reis in the Central Channel of Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro state. During the three months of study, 207 questionnaires were evaluated. The results showed that the group of volunteer divers with more experience identified a greater number of invasive exotic species compared to the group of divers with less experience. No statistical difference was found in the number of species identified between the groups of volunteer divers with and without a species identification chart. As a recommendation for the use of citizen science, it is necessary to use divers with greater diving experience. Developing stricter protocols for the identification of invasive exotic marine species is essential for the collection of quality data. The improvement of monitoring programs based on citizen science can provide useful information for research on biodiversity in marine environments, significantly reducing financial costs and time in the field, in addition to contributing to the ecological knowledge, awareness and environmental education of participants Tarcio S. Mangelli, Cleverson Zapelini, Wesley Duarte da Rocha, Alexandre Schiavetti Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 21 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnotaxonomy of sharks by expert fishers from South Bahia, Brazil: Implications for fisheries management and conservation <p>Historically, Brazilian fisheries management has not considered the knowledge of fish taxonomy from within fishing communities. This study points out processes of recognition, classification and nomenclature of sharks achieved by fishermen from South Bahia, Brazil. Data were obtained through semistructured interviews visually stimulated by exhibiting images of 30 species of elasmobranch fishes. Regionally, elasmobranch species are inserted into the folk taxon called “leather fishes" and in a category known as “cação" (shark) family. In addition to hierarchical classification, the fishermen organize shark species by adopting an ethnodimorphic and sequential model based on ethnoontogeny. Ethnodiagnostic characteristics are mainly related to the morphology, ecology and even physiology of a species. A total of 144 epithets is recorded, with a mean value of 4.8 ethnospecies for each scientific correspondent. Richness of vernacular names impedes species-specific information gathering regarding shark landings if fisher knowledge is not considered and applied in the improvement of fisheries data. Thus, this study encourages the employment of fishermen as parataxonomists in order to assist in the identification of sharks to specific levels. This study further emphasizes the potential of using ethnotaxonomic knowledge of fishing communities in initiatives related to participative management of shark fisheries in developing countries.</p> Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho, Milena Ramires, José da Silva Mourão, Ricardo de Souza Rosa, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega Alves, Eraldo Medeiros Costa-Neto Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Sat, 22 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Can citizen science help delimit the geographical distribution of a species? The case of the Callistoctopus sp. (“eastern octopus”) on the Brazilian coast <p>This study presents the first considerations and observations of the occurrence of the octopus <em>Callistoctopus</em> sp. on the coast of Brazil. Local ecological knowledge (LEK) and citizen science, used as a research tool, were fundamental to confirm the presence and delimit the distribution of this species on the Brazilian coast. In all, 187 interviews were conducted with octopus fishers in 17 localities surrounding six marine protected areas, between March 2018 and August 2019. During the development of the work, the number of volunteer participants significantly increased, from the initial 107 specialists to about 2180 local informants, including fishers, divers and diving instructors. The SWOT matrix was used as a synthesis method to identify the possibilities for the use of citizen science in ethnoecological studies. By using citizen science, it was possible to extend the area of distribution of this new species from the three existing records of individuals captured for the state of Pernambuco and Bahia to eleven records for more than seven states. The citizen science tool was considered useful for the generation of data that complement scientific research, and its greatest obstacle for use in ethnobiological studies was the need to motivate volunteers to increase the robustness of the collected data.</p> Manuella Dultra de Jesus, Cleverson Zapelini, Alexandre Schiavetti Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution, eco-climatic characterisation, and potential growing regions of Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) in Mexico. The cherimoya (<em>Annona cherimola </em>Mill.) is a fruit crop with worldwide commercial importance. However, its distribution and potential growing regions of cherimoya are not defined for Mexico. That is why, this research aims to map the natural distribution of cherimoya and different eco-climatic regions where it is grown in Mexico as well as to map the climatic adaptability with the current climate and a prospection with the climate change scenario, all by different models of GIS. The general distribution model of cherimoya in Mexico showed that it had a chance to find cherimoya “in a natural way” in the biogeographic provinces Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Sierra Madre del Sur and Highlands of Chiapas. Three eco-climatic groups were found in the distribution of cherimoya that corresponded to climates <em>C(m)(w)</em>, <em>(A)C(e’)</em>, and <em>(A)C(e)</em>, respectively. Where the group with climate <em>(A)C(e)</em> had the most restricted distribution. The potential growing regions of excellent adaptation of cherimoya were found in the biogeographic provinces of Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre del Sur and Highlands of Chiapas. Finally, based on eco-crop modelling, it is concluded that climate change will not greatly affect areas of excellent adaptation of cherimoya in Mexico. Jesús Rubén Rodríguez-Núñez, Eduardo Campos-Rojas, Jorge Andrés-Agustín, Iran Alia-Tejacal, Santo Angel Ortega-Acosta, Vicente Peña-Caballero, Tomás Jesús Madera-Santana, Carlos Alberto Núñez-Colín Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Does the respondent's role affect the final value of management effectiveness? The case of Brazilian marine protected areas <p>Over the last decade, there has been a change in the way protected areas are managed across the world, as their management gradually ceases to be the sole responsibility of the government and is being shared with civil society. This study evaluates the management effectiveness, according to the managers and management boards of 20 marine protected areas (MPAs) on the coast of Brazil, using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) methodology. There were differences in perspectives of the managers and management boards; 8 MPAs showed a significant difference in management effectiveness values, and 11 MPAs showed a change in management effectiveness category. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the year the management board was established, and the effectiveness value provided by the council, as well as a significant difference between the effectiveness values of the MPAs under federal and state responsibility. In view of these differences, it is suggested that evaluations of management effectiveness should be carried out not only with managers, but also with management boards to reduce possible incongruities caused by the responses of only one person.</p> Camila S. Brandão, Wesley da Rocha, Cleverson Zapelini, Jessyca L. Teixeira, Alexandre Schiavetti Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fishers' knowledge on the ecology, impacts and benefits of the non-native peacock bass <i>Cichla kelberi</i> in a coastal river in southeastern Brazil <p>Ethnoichthyology has been used to understand how humans perceive environmental changes, including species introductions. In Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil, fishers introduced juveniles of peacock bass<em> Cichla kelberi</em> in the Juturnaíba Reservoir in the 1990’s. In the last years, this fish started to be caught in the São João River, downstream of the dam. This study aimed to identify whether fishers recognize the potential impact of the peacock bass over the native species, to understand the economic valuation they made to the services provided by this species, and if they include management of the non-native peacock bass in their practices. Semi-structured interviews with artisanal and sport fishers were employed between September and October 2016. A total of twenty-five interviews were carried out, 12 with artisanal and 13 with sport fishers. In general, fishers expressed knowledge about biological and behavioral aspects of the peacock bass, but opinions diverged on its impact over the native ichthyofauna. Differently from the artisanal, most sport fishers do not relate the decline in the population of other native species to the occurrence of the peacock bass. Instead, they mention other anthropogenic impacts in the São João River basin. The later advocate the practice of fish and release for the peacock bass, in order to maintain their population in the study area. The ethnoichthyological knowledge gathered from fishers provide novel information related to the native ichthyofauna, peacock bass introduction and other anthropogenic impacts, and might constitute a powerful tool to the development of sustainable strategies.</p> Paula Araujo Catelani, Ana Cristina Petry, Fernando Mayer Pelicice, Renato Azevedo Matias Silvano Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Size matters: identity of culturally important herrings in northeastern Brazil <span class="fontstyle0">Fishery statistics are mainly made by recording the popular fish names, which is later translated into scientific identification. However, these names often either refer to a species group and/or vary along their distribution, increasing identification uncertainty. Species that have cultural value for traditional communities are known as culturally important species (CIS). Herein, we assessed Fishers’ Ecological Knowledge to investigate small-silvery herrings (</span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga</span><span class="fontstyle0">) used as part of a traditional dish \ginga com tapioca", that is recognized as a cultural heritage in the Brazilian northeastern. Through 103 interviews conducted in six communities in three states, we determined that </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga</span><span class="fontstyle0">, although a name known elsewhere, is only traded as such in the metropolitan area of Natal. In this region, </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga </span><span class="fontstyle0">is caught with drift net and deemed profitable by fishers. We identified both over- and under-differentiation, with </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga </span><span class="fontstyle0">recognized by fishers as five, and sold as three main species, namely </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Opisthonema oglinum</em>, <em>Harengula </em></span><span class="fontstyle0">sp., and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Lile piquiting</span><span class="fontstyle2">a</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">. The larger specimens of two of those species (</span><em><span class="fontstyle2">O. oglinum </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Harengula </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">sp.) were also traded as sardines. We found that most individuals sold as </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga </span><span class="fontstyle0">were juveniles, which might impact the recruitment of some fish species. Due to its unique cultural relevance to the local community of Natal, </span><span class="fontstyle2">ginga </span><span class="fontstyle0">could be considered a CIS, which could aid future management or conservation measures.</span><br /><br /> Thais Ferreira-Araújo, Priscila Fabiana Macedo Lopes, Sergio Maia Queiroz Lima Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Conservation of Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae): the case of Extractive Reserve Verde para Sempre, Brazil <p>The Amazonian manatee (<em>Trichechus inunguis</em>) is the largest aquatic freshwater mammal in South America found in the main rivers of the Amazon Basin. The main objective of this work was to describe the ecological knowledge and use of the Amazonian manatee in the Extractive Reserve Verde para Sempre (RESEX), located in Porto de Moz, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. This study was conducted through semi-structured interviews, free interviews, participant observation and image capture. Thirty-one residents were interviewed in 21 RESEX communities. The interviewees were previously identified by local informants and selected according to their level of knowledge of the species. We collected information on the morphology, behavioral characteristics and feeding habits of manatees, as well as on the uses of the species. According to interviewees, poaching and consumption of manatees is rare, and entanglement of calves in fishing nets is accidental. The headwaters of rivers and streams, that make up the water network of this extractive reserve, are little affected by human activity, and constitute potential areas of refuge for the species. The study shows that the maintenance of the extractive reserve gives good results in the protection of the Amazonian manatee. Even though, these animals are accidentally caught, and sometimes poached. Thus, it corroborates with the statement that sustainable development reserves are efficient strategies for biodiversity conservation. Thus, it is suggested the application of environmental education programs and awareness measures, aimed at the general public.</p> Cinthia Hoffmann, Samantha da Silva, Angélica Rodrigues, Pedro Baía-junior, Yvonnick Le Pendu, Diva Anelie Guimarães Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Thu, 26 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Current situation and future perspectives of ethnoichthyology in Brazil <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">A etnoquitologia vem ganhando destaque em várias regiões do mundo, pois tem havido colaborações por meio de estudos que buscam entender os diferentes usos e significados dos peixes entre os diferentes grupos humanos. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Neste estudo, realizamos uma revisão sistemática para identificar a situação atual dos estudos etnoichthyological no Brasil. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">A revisão foi realizada em 2018, utilizando os bancos de dados das seguintes plataformas: Google Scholar (, Scopus (, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior ( Periódicos da CAPES; e Web of Science ( </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O intervalo de tempo em que as publicações foram pesquisadas foi de 1990 a 2018. Ao todo, foram encontrados 161 artigos publicados relacionados à etnoquitologia no país. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">A produção científica em etnoquitologia tem mostrado um crescimento significativo ao longo dos anos, com a maioria dos estudos concentrados na região Nordeste do país (38,3%), principalmente no estado da Bahia (16,3%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os campos de estudo incluem ambientes aquáticos marinhos e de água doce, como costas (62%) e rios (61%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">com a maioria dos estudos concentrados na região nordeste do país (38,3%), principalmente no estado da Bahia (16,3%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os campos de estudo incluem ambientes aquáticos marinhos e de água doce, como costas (62%) e rios (61%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">com a maioria dos estudos concentrados na região nordeste do país (38,3%), principalmente no estado da Bahia (16,3%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os campos de estudo incluem ambientes aquáticos marinhos e de água doce, como costas (62%) e rios (61%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Os artigos contam principalmente com a colaboração de pescadores artesanais profissionais (62,9%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">O tema mais frequentemente abordado nos estudos foi etnotaxonomia de peixes (15,8%). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Concluímos que a etnoquitologia está crescendo no país, exigindo maiores incentivos para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, principalmente em regiões ainda pouco estudadas, bem como a inclusão de importantes atores na economia local.</span></span></p> Daniel da Silva Ladislau, Pauliana Leão de Souza, Paulo Henrique Rocha Aride, Adriano Teixeira de Oliveira, Éder André Gubiani Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 27 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The media paradox: influence on human shark perceptions and potential conservation impacts <p>Sharks, due to some of their characteristics such as prominent teeth and size, cause fear in many people. This feeling can be evidenced due to encounters with these animals or sustained by media information. Currently, negative information on these animals, present in movies and the news, for example, has contributed to a worldwide feeling of "fear" or "anger" towards sharks in the general public. On the other hand, efforts to better understand these animals have increased. In addition to films and documentaries, many scientific and environmental education groups have attempted to improve or alleviate, public perception concerning this significant fear and promote shark conservation. In this context, we analyzed the perceptions of 354 people living in Rio de Janeiro, a coastal city in southeastern Brazil, by applying a structured online questionnaire about sharks. The findings reported herein indicate direct media influence on respondent perceptions, according to the “good” or “bad” image that media vehicles pass on concerning these animals, and that, despite an established fear of sharks, public support for their conservation is maintained. The factor analysis indicated a relationship between older people and more fear, and less fear among people aged 20-40 years. We believe that the lesser fear in the latter is related to the influence of the current media in this age group, such as documentaries and social networks, while older respondents lived in a period with less environmental information and became more susceptible to shark negative films and media, in which the fear persists today.</p> Raquel Lubambo Ostrovski, Guilherme Martins Violante, Mariana Reis de Brito, Jean Louis Valentin, Marcelo Vianna Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 We need to appreciate common synanthropic plants before they become rare: Case study in Latgale (Latvia) <p>Local ecological knowledge holds great potential in contributing to sustainable resource management and conservation activities. For this reason, the authors choose to analyse an ethnobotanical dataset from the Baltic Sea region by exploring the relationship between plants and humans on the basis of three main categories: habitat characteristics, distribution in the wild and plant sensitivity to human impact beyond physical distance. The study provides empirical evidence of widespread usage of so-called common species which are widely distributed in the territory and benefit from human activity. When considering the data via the intensity of use, based on detailed use-reports (DUR), the main category is shown to be apophytes (1001 DUR), followed by anthropophytes (426), hemeradiophores (255) and hemerophobes (54). The authors highlight the co-dependency of plants and humans in the medicinal and wild food domains and stress the need for integrated management strategies where local community knowledge plays a part.</p> <p> </p> <p>Keywords: Common Species; Conservation; Ethnobotany; Synanthropic Plants.</p> Baiba Prūse, Raivo Kalle, Gabriella Buffa, Andra Simanova, Ieva Mežaka, Renata Sõukand Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Mon, 21 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Conservation education promotes positive short- and medium-term changes in perceptions and attitudes towards a threatened primate species <p>Many wildlife conservation projects aim to change the perceptions of local communities through conservation education programs. However, few assess whether and how these programs effectively promote shifts in community perceptions and attitudes towards wildlife conservation. We designed an educational program focused on communicating to local inhabitants from a remote community in the Peruvian Amazon that their territories are considered globally important for the red uakari (<em>Cacajao calvus</em>), and inspire them to become protectors and defenders of this endangered species. We aimed to evaluate changes in perceptions and attitudes towards the red uakari monkey after a conservation education workshop. We found that positive attitudes and perceptions towards the red uakari (such as uakari hunting suspension and perception of uakari importance) increased immediately after and in the short-term (two years) following the workshop but diminished in the medium-term (three years). However, attitudes remained better than before the workshop. Our results indicate that conservation education programs are useful in encouraging positive attitudes towards wildlife conservation in the short term, but ongoing environmental education activities may be necessary to have lasting positive effects.</p> Galicia Fernanda Bernárdez-Rodriguez, Mark Bowler, Franciany Braga-Pereira, Maxine McNaughton, Pedro Mayor Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on international academic study exchange and research mobility programs <p>In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, international exchange students and mobility researchers are probably the most neglected group within academia. We highlight their challenges within academia and society and we propose solutions towards academic flexibility, mobility preparedness and cultural immersion in host communities.</p> Farid Dahdouh-Guebas, Ina Vandebroek Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Thu, 25 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender and ethnic equity: what can we learn from ancestral and indigenous peoples to deal with socio-environmental issues? <h2>The socio-environmental crisis that we are currently experiencing requires integrative research approaches and actions. Ethnobiology has important potential in this regard, both for its interdisciplinary nature and for recording the relationship between humans and the environment at different times and places. In this way, this opinion essay aims to discuss what we can learn from ancestral societies and Indigenous peoples for the establishment of a more equitable and sustainable world, considering the intersection between gender and ethnic groups. We will begin by examining the history of societies in Old Europe and how domineering and patriarchal societies have been established. We will discuss a few findings about pre-Columbian peoples in America that reinforces the the existence of more equitable societies. We add discussions related to gender, in the context of Indigenous peoples, and reflecting on the importance of the feminine and of the complementarity in social relationships. Finally, we discuss the role of ethnobiological research in this context and the ways of collaborating to support values that favor the establishment of equitable societies, which are fundamental to address the challenges of this era of change.</h2> Sofia Zank, Natalia Hanazaki, Clarissa Rocha de Melo Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 In a world in shadows and flames scientists and laypeople need better understanding of how science works <p>Major events, such as pandemics and war, generate great public interest in science, as in the current moment in which we live. We argue, however, that this interest operates through historical pulses and that it does not lead to an increase in scientific literacy in society in general and even among the scientists themselves.</p> Ulysses Albuquerque, Charbel N. El-Hani Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnobiology and Conservation Thu, 24 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnonutrition <p>Ethnonutrition, also known as nutritional anthropology and cultural nutrition, is a discipline that studies the diets of different peoples and cultures using a socio-ecological approach. Research in ethnonutrition analyzes the effect of cultural variables in nutritional outcomes under the following topics: (i) sociocultural processes, (ii) social epidemiology, (iii) idea systems, (iv) gene-culture coevolution, (v) food biodiversity. By addressing the cultural bias to which diets are embedded, ethnonutrition science sheds light on how nutrition can (i) promote diets that can contribute to the well-being of people of different cultures, (ii) while protecting all forms of life, and (iii) ensuring the sustainability of the planet.</p> Michelle Cristine Medeiros Jacob, Carla Djaine Teixeira, Danielle Amorim Bautista, Vanessa Almeida Nogueira Ramos Copyright (c) 2021 Ethnobiology and Conservation Thu, 28 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000