Ethnobiology and Conservation 2024-07-12T14:03:11+00:00 Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves Open Journal Systems Enhancing Editorial Standards and Introducing the New Checklist Section of the Ethnobiology and Conservation 2024-03-08T13:18:31+00:00 Ulysses Albuquerque Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves 2024-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ulysses Albuquerque; Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves Is there a neocolonial stance in ethnobiology? 2024-01-05T12:44:23+00:00 Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues do Carmo 2024-01-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues do Carmo Assessing the cognitive salience of wild fauna in the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve, Mexico 2024-07-10T14:03:17+00:00 Zeltzin Ketzalken Zepeda Hernández María Teresa Pulido Silva Gerardo Sánchez Rojas <p>It is important to document the knowledge possessed by rural people about the species of flora and fauna in their environment, so that this knowledge can be incorporated into conservation efforts. We set out to learn about the traditional knowledge held by the inhabitants of the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve (BMBR) regarding the fauna in their environment, identifying which wild species they recognize and what cognitive salience they assign to them. We also compared knowledge between people who live in the valley (La Vega) and the mountains (La Sierra), and between men and women to determine whether knowledge was different. We conducted semi-structured interviews from April 2016 to February 2017. In order to evaluate traditional knowledge, we used the Smith index because it combines the frequency and order of mention of the listed elements. We found that in the BMBR local people recognized 37 wild species, including 25 mammals, 9 birds, two reptiles and one unidentified species. The Smith Index is only correlated with mention frequency, but not with mention order. The ethnozoological knowledge is structured by gender; while men mention 100% species of the list generated by the interviews, women only cover 59.5%. Some wild animals recorded a significant variation in the cognitive salience between La Vega and La Sierra. The local population has extensive knowledge about which wild species inhabit the area, mainly of mammals and secondarily of birds and reptiles. This knowledge should be integrated into conservation plans for the reserve.</p> 2024-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Zeltzin Ketzalken Zepeda Hernández, María Teresa Pulido Silva, Gerardo Sánchez Rojas Wildlife Consumption Dynamics: Unveiling Conduru Park in Southern Bahia, Brazil 2024-01-04T12:44:29+00:00 Joanison Vicente dos Santos Teixeira Wesley Duarte da Rocha Jefferson Eduardo Silveira Miranda Alexandre Schiavetti <p>The current investigation aimed to identify the wild animals utilized as a food source in five locations within the Serra do Conduru State Park region, Bahia, Brazil. The field survey was conducted from June 2016 to July 2017, involving semi-structured interviews and informal conversations with 45 hunters. The composition of species used for sustenance in the five locations was characterized through permutation multivariate analyses of variance. Generalized linear models were constructed to evaluate whether socio-demographic variables among hunters influenced the number of captured species. A total of 67 species (34 families and 22 orders) of hunting significance were documented in the region, with 41 being hunted for consumption. The most represented taxa were mammals (32), birds (21), reptiles (13), and amphibians (1). <em>Dicotyles tajacu</em>, <em>Dasypus novemcinctus</em>, and <em>Cuniculus paca</em> emerged as the most targeted species for food. Hunters who still reside within the conservation unit capture a greater number of wild animals. Older hunters and those with smaller family sizes hunt a broader range of species. The rifle and domestic dogs are the predominant techniques employed in the region. The findings underscore the persistence of illegal hunting practices in the Serra do Conduru State Park region. This emphasizes the necessity for measures directed at the conservation of hunted species, particularly those identified as being under some degree of threat in nature.</p> 2024-01-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Joanison Vicente dos Santos Teixeira, Wesley Duarte da Rocha, Jefferson Eduardo Silveira Miranda, Alexandre Schiavetti Are beekeepers conservation-friendly? A study on attitudes and values toward animals among small-scale farmers 2024-01-23T12:55:15+00:00 Roberta Monique Amâncio de Carvalho Janaina Kelli Gomes Arandas Celso Feitosa Martins Romulo Romeu da Nóbrega Alves Angelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves <p>Affective and aesthetic values attributed to nature are primary motivations that can influence human attitudes toward and economic valuation of biodiversity. The expression of these values, however, depends on direct contact and positive experiences with nature. In this sense, research on activities that favor beneficial human-nature interactions, such as beekeeping, can contribute to understanding the factors (including affective and aesthetic) that influence attitudes toward and economic valuation of biodiversity. Our research was carried out at Sítio Xixá, a rural locality originally covered by Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. We investigated attitudes toward a variety of locally known animals and their economic value among two groups of small-scale farmers: keepers and nonkeepers of stingless bees. We assumed that keepers of stingless bees would cite more affective-aesthetic attitudes toward animals and would be more willing to pay for animal conservation than nonbeekeepers. The data were collected via semistructured interviews. Beekeepers cited more affective-aesthetic attitudes than nonbeekeepers did. On the other hand, beekeepers were less willing to pay for animal conservation than nonbeekeepers were. It seems that the expression of affective-aesthetic values directed toward animals tends to occur more frequently in groups of people who maintain activities that favor beneficial interactions with the environment, such as beekeepers. However, these values reflect nonmaterial aspects that people attribute to nature and may not be economically valued by human groups. Therefore, nonmaterial values that human populations attribute to nature, such as those related to affection and aesthetics, should be considered in conservation proposals involving the public.</p> 2024-01-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Roberta Monique Amâncio de Carvalho, Janaina Kelli Gomes Arandas, Celso Feitosa Martins, Romulo Romeu da Nóbrega Alves, Angelo Giuseppe Chaves Alves Interactions between Cetaceans (suborder Odontoceti) and Artisanal Fishing in Brazil: an ethnoecological approach 2024-05-16T13:39:29+00:00 Breno Carvalho Antonio da Silva Souto Antonio da Silva Souto Evaldo de Lira Azevedo Evaldo de Lira Azevedo <p>Studies based on the relationship between humans and the natural environment have been proven to be important tools for understanding the influence, knowledge, and perceptions associated with the web of interactions between humans, species and ecosystems. Here, we highlight the interactions between cetaceans and artisanal fishing. Thus, this study aimed to: a) compile studies that consider artisanal fishing and its interactions with small cetaceans in Brazil; b) understand research trends over the years; c) analyse the distribution of studies by country region; d) perform authorship and citation analyses; e) classify the interactions between cetaceans and artisanal fishing recorded by authors and f) identify dolphin species registered in the study. To achieve this, we reviewed the current status of national publications related to the interactions of cetaceans (suborder Odontoceti) with artisanal fishing in Brazil, focusing on ethnoecological studies. Seven databases were used to survey the studies. To classify the interactions, we adopted the categorization proposed by Freitas-Netto and adapted by Di Beneditto. Based on the data analysis, we registered 12 types of interactions, seven of which were grouped according to the descriptions proposed by Di Beneditto and five new categories were described based on the results of this study. The studies reported the interaction of 43.2% (n=16) of the 37 odontocete species reported to occur in Brazil, with emphasis on the species <em>Sotalia guianensis</em>, <em>Tursiops truncatus</em>, <em>Pontoporia blainvillei</em>, <em>Inia geoffrensis</em> and <em>Sotalia fluviatilis</em>. From our research it was possible to observe that ethnoecological studies allow us to answer important questions about the occurrence of species and aspects of fishing. Furthermore, we reinforce the importance of developing studies which focus on the knowledge of the existing relationships between cetaceans and traditional fishing methods, since studies on this topic can generate data that contribute to the establishment of mitigation strategies and the management of species and ecosystems.</p> 2024-05-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Breno Carvalho, Antonio da Silva Souto, Evaldo de Lira Azevedo Exploring local ecological knowledge to inform the conservation of the Endangered and understudied Preuss’s monkey (Allochrocebus preussi) in Ebo forest, Cameroon 2023-12-07T19:53:30+00:00 Nkemnyi Standly Nkengbeza Eric Djomo Nana Ekwoge Enang Abwe Jean Pascal Koh-Dimbot Ngome Laura Mesame Peter Njukang Akongte Eric Bertrand Fokam <p>This study explored local ecological knowledge held by local people bordering Cameroon’s Ebo forest, in view to evaluate the possible contribution of this set of knowledge to conserve the understudied Preuss’s monkey (<em>Allochrocebus preussi</em>). Data were collected through interviews using semi-structured questionnaires, administered to 262 households from 17 villages of permanent settlements purposely selected based on their closeness and dependence to the Ebo forest for livelihoods. We found that the log-odds of being in favor of conserving <em>A. preussi</em> in the area was significantly higher for participants of secondary school level of education, strongly increased when participants had last eaten this species ≥ 1 year ago and was higher for participants who use this species for subsistence. The log-odds of perceiving a decreasing trend of <em>A. preussi</em> in the area was significantly highest for participants who had last consumed this species ≥ 5 years ago compared to those who had recently consumed the species. Participants who used <em>A. preussi</em> for income generation were more likely to perceive decreasing trend, compared to those who used it for food. Overall, our study highlights the possible value of local ecological knowledge as a tool that can provide important information to conservationists and decision-makers useful to plan and prioritize conservation actions for <em>A. preussi</em>. Also, our findings suggest the urgency to monitor populations of <em>A. preussi</em>, assess the impact of hunting pressure on this species, and develop sustainable livelihood activities and community-based conservation education to strengthening the conservation of <em>A. preussi</em> in Ebo forest.</p> 2024-03-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nkemnyi Standly Nkengbeza, Eric Djomo Nana, Ekwoge Enang Abwe, Jean Pascal Koh-Dimbot, Ngome Laura Mesame, Peter Njukang Akongte, Eric Bertrand Fokam Analysis of scientific production and knowledge about wildlife roadkill in Brazilian protected areas 2024-03-13T13:19:04+00:00 Jefferson Miranda Alexandre Schiavetti <p>Roads are responsible for great biodiversity loss, especially in protected areas (PAs). Thus, considering the great risk of roads to PAs and the lack of knowledge about these areas, we aimed to analyze the scientific production on wildlife roadkill in Brazil and compare the studies that surveyed roads with and without PAs. We searched for papers in five databases: SciELO, Google Scholar, Reet Brasil, Scopus and Plataforma Lattes. Studies considered to be near PAs (PPA) collected data within a radius of 1km of PAs and the other studies were considered to have no PA (NPA). We found 126 studies that surveyed wildlife roadkill in Brazil, of which 57% are PPA. Publications on wildlife roadkill have increased in recent years, with a greater number of PPA studies than NPA studies (W = 618, p = 0.5992). Mammals are the most-studied group (n = 108), followed by reptiles (n = 79), birds (n = 73) and amphibians (n = 58). Most of the studies took place in the Cerrado (54) and the Atlantic Forest (45), where are the greatest number of surveyed PAs, greatest number of PAs and greatest number of PAs without studies. Only 18 papers suggest specific mitigation measures for the study site. The increase in PPA studies is positive, but researchers need to increase contact with PA managers to produce scientific knowledge and develop more efficient mitigation measures for these areas. We encourage increased surveying of roads near PAs, involvement of researchers with environmental agencies, and more studies with small animals.</p> 2024-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Jefferson Miranda, Alexandre Schiavetti People socialize ecological information about the environment but may forget their own experiences: a case study of local ecological knowledge about seed-dispersing animals 2024-06-10T21:04:32+00:00 Gilney Charll Santos José Ribamar de Sousa Júnior André Luiz Borba do Nascimento Josivan Soares da Silva Ivanilda Soares Feitosa Nicola Schiel Elcida de Lima Araújo Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves Ulysses Albuquerque <p style="font-weight: 400;">Local ecological knowledge (LEK) has been increasingly used in the search for efficient strategies to maintain biological diversity. However, considering the rapid environmental changes in ecosystems, such knowledge may have been lost between generations, affecting its potential application. In this study, we adopted the LEK of the potential dispersers of <em>Caryocar coriaceum </em>Wittm. (Caryocaraceae), an endangered plant species of socioeconomic and cultural importance from northeast Brazil, as a model. We evaluated whether there is intergenerational variation in the LEK about the abundance of <em>Dasyprocta prymnolopha </em>(the principal disperser of <em>C. coriaceum</em>) associated with the local practice of hunting. We collected LEK data from 39 hunter-gatherers aged 31 to 84 years, and camera traps were used during two annual <em>C. coriaceum </em>harvests to record its potential dispersers. Our results indicate that the LEK of the potential animal dispersers of <em>C. coriaceum </em>does not vary between generations; it is disseminated and shared between different generations. The strong interactions among people during the <em>C. coriaceum </em>harvest period facilitate the sharing of information about the potential dispersers of this species. Our results show that hunting <em>D. prymnolopha </em>does not depend on perceptions regarding the availability of this resource in the forest, which may be causing overexploitation. Therefore, local knowledge may need to be updated and connected to the recent and rapid environmental changes because people may believe that current environmental conditions are like those of the past. If this is the case, people may be less cooperative with conservation strategies because they are not aware of environmental changes, so measures to update knowledge about environmental conditions may be necessary to encourage effective participation in management and conservation plans.</p> 2024-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Gilney Charll Santos, José Ribamar de Sousa Júnior , André Luiz Borba do Nascimento, Josivan Soares da Silva, Ivanilda Soares Feitosa , Nicola Schiel, Elcida de Lima Araújo, Rômulo Alves, Ulysses Albuquerque Politics of Knowledge in Conservation: (De)valued Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Bote in Chitwan National Park, Nepal 2024-01-03T12:44:29+00:00 Indra Mani Rai Rebat Kumar Dhakal <p>Political ecology studies have mostly explored the conflicts that arise between local communities and Indigenous peoples' (IPs') vulnerability to sustainable livelihoods based on nature and conservation regimes. Even in the context of the change in conservation tactics towards active community involvement and socioeconomic development, which has reinforced the fortress conservation strategy, traditional ways of life and the lived traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of IPs are under jeopardy. Nevertheless, the studies give little consideration to the way in which TEK is (de)valued for bolstering fortress conservation at the expense of IPs' livelihoods unsustainability. This study investigates the (de)valuation of TEK of Bote embedded in their traditional livelihoods through conservation management, based on a critical ethnographic investigation carried out in two villages of Bote IPs (in the Buffer Zone area) of Nawalparasi district of Chitwan National Park (CNP) –southern lowlands of Nepal. We argue that TEK is paralyzed by a conservation regime without acknowledging the symbiotic relationship between IPs and biodiversity. Therefore, in order to conserve biodiversity and support the mutual sustainability of biodiversity and local livelihoods, there needs to be active guardianship and stewardship of IPs.</p> 2024-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Indra Indra Mani Rai, Rebat Kumar Dhakal Traditional ecological knowledge of mangrove wood use on the Brazilian Amazon coast 2024-01-03T12:44:17+00:00 Madson Lucas Galvão Tatiane Nascimento Medeiros Rodrigues Iedo Souza Santos Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes <p>Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has been widely used and valued as a reliable source of information in the development of research on the various uses of the forest. Here, the socio-environmental factors that affect the traditional knowledge of extractivists about the uses of mangrove wood in an estuarine-coastal community in the Brazilian Amazon region were analyzed. The grouping of words evoked in semi-structured interviews with 108 local informants highlighted the lexicons that best express the use of mangrove wood. Factorial correspondence analysis was used to assess the intersection between words and age groups, helping to indicate respondents' TEK of these uses. Most respondents say that wood is used for domestic (family) purposes, mainly charcoal and weir, and that these purposes and applications were taught by the older generation of the community. The traditional uses of the species <em>Rhizophora mangle</em>, <em>Avicennia germinans</em>, and <em>Laguncularia racemosa</em> have been validated by the scientific literature through their technological properties. From this validation, a relevant contribution is to include the participation of users in intervention processes by using their TEK, making the planning process of preventive conservation strategies and management proposals more efficient, promoting the reduction of a future advance deforestation in this region. Likewise, such information is relevant to guide the social actors involved in the implementation of public policies, favouring the creation of new alternatives and solutions for better management and use of wood resources in mangrove areas.</p> 2024-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Madson Lucas Galvão, Tatiane Nascimento Medeiros Rodrigues, Iedo Souza Santos, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes Can debarking affects sex ratio, population structure and spatial segregation?: insights of unsustainable harvesting in a Mesoamerican tropical tree 2024-01-23T12:54:53+00:00 Leonardo Beltrán Angélica Romero-Manzanares Tamara Ticktin José Blancas Andrea Martínez-Ballesté Orou Gaoue Robert Bye <p>The ecological mechanisms that contribute to maintaining plant populations have been exhaustively examined around the world, but the relative quantification of the effect of anthropogenic processes on these mechanisms in tropical dioecious tree species has not been revealed yet. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of debarking on the sex ratio, population structure, distribution and spatial correlation between the sexes and growth stages of <em>Amphipterygium adstringens</em> (Anaciardiaceae), a dioecious tree species that is highly exploited for its medicinal bark. We found differences in plant density between harvested and non-harvested stands. The sex ratio was 1.33♂:1♀ in harvested stands while the opposite was true for non-harvested stands (1.27♀:1♂), which suggest that selective debarking drives androic-skewed and has an impact on reproductive performance. However, despite the dominance of a certain sex in the relative frequencies under each condition, we did not register spatial sex segregation since the analysis suggests that the spatial independence pattern does not differ between sites. In contrast, facilitation requirements (spatial attraction) between androic plants and seedlings, and between seedlings and saplings were found in non-harvested areas, while spatial uniformity patterns on a population level suggest strategies to avoid competition over space and finite resources in stressful environments. These novel findings point out that debarking constitutes a factor that not only modifies the spatial and population structure of a Mesoamerican tropical tree, but it can also influence sex ratio, consequently affecting the long-term conservation of <em>A. adstringens</em> stands.</p> 2024-01-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Leonardo Beltrán, Angélica Romero-Manzanares, Tamara Ticktin, José Blancas, Andrea Martínez Ballesté, Orou Gaoue, Robert Bye Object analysis and species identification of an Asháninka hood from the Rio Ene valley, Peru 2024-05-18T13:40:51+00:00 Caroline Fernandes Caromano Walid Dani Kaki Tinde Van Andel Max Kockelkorn <p>A cotton headdress ornamented with several botanical and faunal elements (TM-5074-2) is kept in the depot of the Wereldmuseum in Amsterdam. There is little information about the provenance of the object or its context of use. Identified by the museum as a ‘shaman hood’, is said to have been obtained from an Asháninka indigenous community along the Ene River, Peruvian Amazon. The unusual composition of the hood, with 16 bundles of bird fragments, 39 bundles of mammal parts, and 3332 seeds, raises several questions. Is the object a traditional Asháninka ornament? Is the combination of so many distinct elements a result of later additions? Is it possible that the hood was manufactured for sale? In addition to literature research, the identification of the biological material can offer some clues if the object was manufactured in the same region inhabited by the Asháninka communities. Through the morphological comparison of the plant and animal parts attached to the hood with the botanical and zoological collections of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, this study aimed to provide new tools for provenance research, by identifying the species present in the object. As a result, eight different plant species, eight bird taxa and at least eight mammal taxa attached to the object were identified, most of them native to the Peruvian Amazon. Finally, with the identification of the species, we proposed possible interpretations for the selection of plants and animals added to the shaman hood based on the historical context and the Asháninka worldview.</p> 2024-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Caroline Fernandes Caromano, Walid Dani Kaki, Tinde Van Andel, Max Kockelkorn Are firewood preference behaviors influenced by restrictions in access to vegetation, and can they vary over time? 2024-04-11T13:30:30+00:00 Carlos Henrique Tavares Mendes Marcelo Alves Ramos Taline Cristina Silva <p>Studies aim to understand the behavior of human populations when selecting certain groups of plants over others. Some plants are chosen for favorable characteristics that justify specific uses. Thus, individuals may exhibit specialized behavior patterns, selecting plants for fuel based on specific biological traits like ignition potential and durability, or generalized behavior patterns, depending on species availability or utilitarian redundancy. However, little is known about how the preference for these resources may be shaped by contexts that prohibit resource use. Prohibiting resource use can compel human groups to devise new selection strategies, leading to significant changes in socioecological system dynamics. Hence, this study aims to investigate how preference for plants used as firewood varies in areas with restricted and unrestricted resource use. We conducted semi-structured interviews in two communities. Participants with restricted natural resource access in the past showed a tendency towards specialized behavior (p&lt;0.000849). However, due to imposed restrictions, the community had to develop new usage strategies, resulting in a tendency towards generalized behavior (p&gt;0.6489). Preference in unrestricted use areas varied over years, with generalists in the past (p&gt;0.4675) and specialists presently (p&lt;0.2074). Based on these behaviors, we infer that these human groups possess adaptive plasticity to mitigate the drastic effects of long-term wood resource extraction.</p> 2024-04-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Carlos Henrique Tavares Mendes, Marcelo Alves Ramos, Taline Cristina Silva Tikuna Perceptions of Extreme Weather Events: A Case Study on an Indigenous Lands in the Upper Solimões River, Brazil 2024-01-23T12:55:03+00:00 Maiana Costa do Lago George Henrique Rebelo Ana Carla Bruno Luiza Magalli Pinto Henriques <div> <p class="Standard"><span lang="EN-US">The synergistic effects of extreme weather events and socioecological vulnerability are still poorly documented for Amazonian indigenous peoples. Herein, we investigated the impacts of recent extreme weather events on Tikuna villages.</span><span lang="EN-US"> Tikuna are ancient people of the Amazon, with an estimated population of approximately 53 thousand people widely distributed along the upper Solimões River in the </span><span lang="EN-US">western Brazilian Amazon</span><span lang="EN-US">. The fieldwork was carried out between October 10 and December 10, 2018, using participatory research, including focus group interviews and free-listing exercises. Four extreme weather events were recalled, namely</span><span lang="EN-US">, the extreme floods of 2009, the subsequent extreme drought of 2010, and the extreme floods of 2012 and 2015. The results indicated that Tikuna from some villages are adopting migration from </span><span lang="EN-US">floodplain habitats</span><span lang="EN-US"> to </span><span lang="EN-US">nonflooded</span><span lang="EN-US"> lands as a coping strategy to increase </span><span lang="EN-US">the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. This process was characterized by famine periods, internal divisions, and increased vulnerability. The three villages have rich traditional knowledge and live on a large diversity of biological resources, base for a fishing economy and for an agroforestry system, the original indigenous subsistence agriculture with a high level of self-sufficiency in terms of food. Until our study, Tikunas had not received any information about the global climate emergency. Our findings can contribute to formulating public policies to provide support for adapting to climate change. These policies must ensure the participation of the Tikuna and other indigenous peoples in local and national discussions on climate change, strengthening their capacity to develop adaptation strategies based on their ancestral knowledge.</span></p> </div> 2024-01-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Maiana Costa do Lago, George Henrique Rebelo, Ana Carla Bruno, Luiza Magalli Pinto Henriques Preventive, Curative, and Tolerance Practices: Family Farmers' Local Ecological Knowledge regarding Harmful Crop Arthropods in NW Patagonia 2024-07-03T14:01:41+00:00 Pablo Andrés Grimaldi Fernando Nicolas Céspedes Catalina Rico Lenta Melisa Stefania Longo Blasón Ana H. Ladio <p style="font-weight: 400;">Family farming systems face the challenge of carrying out their activities alongside Harmful Arthropods (HA), which cause damage to edible, wild, and cultivated plants that are fundamental for farmers. This case study, with farmers from the Nahuel Huapi Family Farmers Free Fair (FFAFNH, Spanish acronym), shows some distinctive elements of Local Ecological Knowledge about HA (LEKHA). LEKHA investigated about seven HA among farmers regarding nomenclature, characterization, ecological aspects, cultivated species affected, ways of acquiring and transmitting knowledge, management practices, and HA's importance. Discussed how these aspects allow us to infer the hybrid character of LEKHA, which articulates traditional knowledge of peasant agriculture and Scientific Technical Knowledge (STK). A participatory workshop was carried out, which emerged as a request and demand from the members of the FFAFNH. Fifteen local names were registered, two of which were Mapuche. Most of the HA are recognized as harmful to more than one plant, and the majority (60%) have been with farmers for a long time. Regarding management, preventive practices predominated (57%) over curative practices (14%). We postulated a new HA management practice, "tolerance" (29%), which implies that HA coexist with people in their productive spaces and are deliberately allowed to follow their natural cycles. The predominant ways of acquiring and transmitting knowledge are idiosyncratic and oblique (35% each). The workshop was an instance of reinforcement and self-validation of LEKHA, where a dialogue of knowledge was established back and forth with the STK.</p> 2024-07-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pablo Andrés Grimaldi, Fernando Nicolas Céspedes, Catalina Rico Lenta, Melisa Stefania Longo Blasón, Ana H. Ladio The rural and urban community perceptions of ecosystem goods and services in the semi-arid reservoirs landscape 2024-07-11T14:03:08+00:00 Lívia Maria Osório de Sousa Dalescka Barbosa de Melo Lucianna Marques Rocha Ferreira Joseline Molozzi <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Ecosystem goods and services (EGS) are the contributions that ecosystems provide to human well-being. The reservoir landscape, an artificial ecosystem, offers a wide range of ecological and socioeconomic functions for local populations, such as potable water, irrigation, and plants for food purposes. This study aimed to assess the perception of EGS provided by the reservoir landscapes of rural and urban populations. Research was conducted with residents around reservoirs in the Paraiba Basin of Brazil, specifically in the cities of Camalaú and Boqueirão. Socioeconomic information and population perceptions were obtained using semi-structured forms and participatory mapping, respectively. Based on analyses using PERMANOVA and Mann-Whitney statistical tests, it was found that rural people and men perceived and cited a higher number of EGS. Responses varied with different education levels (Illiterate, Primary School Incomplete, Primary School Complete, High School Incomplete, High School Complete, and University Degree Complete), with provisioning services being more easily perceived and mentioned by the interviewees. People in direct contact with the natural environment were more likely to perceive EGS than those without such contact. However, the importance of EGS was recognised by both rural and urban populations, as these services are essential for their well-being. Perceptions of riverside populations are important for conservation efforts because they provide valuable information about ecosystems based on their experiences within these ecological systems.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Lívia Maria Osório de Sousa, Dalescka Barbosa de Melo, Lucianna Marques Rocha Ferreira, Joseline Molozzi Understanding the drivers of the live bird trade in Brazil 2024-01-07T12:44:51+00:00 Luane Maria Melo Azeredo Romulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves <p>In this work we sought to evaluate the factors that influence the public's interest in wild birds sold as pets in Brazil, and the relationship of those factors with new occurrences of birds outside their natural range. We compiled the richness of bird species traded in Brazil and obtained comparative data of public interest directed to these species through the Google Trend tool. In addition, we gathered data on biological attributes and the sale price of the species in the trade, to analyze which factors would be related to public interest. Then, factors related to public interest were used to assess whether there was a relationship with these new occurrences. The main founds indicated that the public interest is greater for songbirds, omnivores, which live in more open environments and are sold at lower prices. All those factors also showed to be related to the birds that presented new occurrences. The public's preference for birds more generalist and from more open environments are important results, as such factors generally indicate greater environmental tolerance, which may favor the establishment of these birds in new environments. Therefore, it is likely that species releases or escape from captivity, combined with their life history attributes, may favor the establishment of isolates in new environments. Thus, the present results demonstrate that actions aimed at the conservation of commercialized species are essential to reduce the interregional trade of species, and consequently reduce the impact on natural populations and reduce the potential for new biological introductions.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Luane Maria Melo Azeredo, Romulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves The impact of RS–040 highway on wildlife roadkill patterns, Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil 2024-01-04T12:44:18+00:00 Gabrielle Zanettini Tres Tiago Dominguez Pacheco Vitor Gabriel Cardozo Silva Paulo Guilherme Carniel Wagner Walter Nisa-Castro-Neto Cláudio Estêvão Farias Cruz <p>Road infrastructure has caused severe impacts on the environment and wildlife. Understanding and mitigating these effects are essential conservation measures.&nbsp;&nbsp; This study aimed to evaluate wildlife mortality due to animal-vehicle collisions along an 80-km stretch of the Tapir Rocha Highway (RS–040). The field inventory was carried out between August 2015 and March 2019. Once a week, two observers drove along the highway at an average speed of 40 km/h and all the vertebrate roadkill spotted from the car were assessed to record the species, carcass condition, and the roadkill locations along the road. In total, 2,371 dead animals were recorded and categorized into 137 species. The most affected classes were mammals (n = 1,223), and birds (n = 704). The most affected wild species were white-eared opossums (<em>Didelphis albiventri</em>s, n = 559), black-and-white tegus (<em>Salvator merianae</em>, n = 129), and coypus (Myocastor coypus, n = 102). Carcass exposure assessments indicated that many (n = 637) of the animal deaths occurred the night before our arrival, which may suggest that nocturnal species were among the most vulnerable to mortality. Roadkill sighting peaked in the spring (34%) and summer (25%), probably due to reproductive activity and juvenile dispersal. Evident seasonal variations included a 50% reduction in reptile roadkill rates in autumn-winter compared to spring-summer, and a 20-percentage-point increase in the number of mammal road deaths in the winter. The reduced activity that reptiles display at low temperatures, and seasonal changes in carnivore food habits may explain these respective findings. While most of the animal victims of roadkill were common and widely distributed species with abundant populations, decreasing abundance of these species is a growing conservation concern.</p> 2024-01-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Gabrielle Zanettini Tres, Tiago Dominguez Pacheco, Vitor Gabriel Cardozo Silva, Paulo Guilherme Carniel Wagner, Walter Nisa-Castro-Neto, Cláudio Estêvão Farias Cruz Political Ethnobiology 2024-07-12T14:03:11+00:00 Gustavo Taboada Soldati Emmanuel Duarte Almada <p style="font-weight: 400;">Indigenous peoples and local communities continue to suffer various violations and ethnocide. Their knowledge systems and biodiversity management practices, which are fundamental to overcoming the central crises of today, are under threat. Consolidating a political approach in Ethnobiology can contribute to the struggles and rights of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities. Therefore, we present (i) a brief history of the political approach in Ethnobiology, (ii) conceptual and theoretical contributions to an anti-oppressive Ethnobiology, (iii) a proposal for a conceptual and programmatic synthesis for Political Ethnobiology, and (iv) examples of investigations and concrete actions in the field of Political Ethnobiology.</p> 2024-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Gustavo Taboada Soldati, Emmanuel Duarte Almada