Does the respondent's role affect the final value of management effectiveness? The case of Brazilian marine protected areas
Keywords:MPA, management board, environmental policy, coral reef
Over the last decade, there has been a change in the way protected areas are managed across the world, as their management gradually ceases to be the sole responsibility of the government and is being shared with civil society. This study evaluates the management effectiveness, according to the managers and management boards of 20 marine protected areas (MPAs) on the coast of Brazil, using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) methodology. There were differences in perspectives of the managers and management boards; 8 MPAs showed a significant difference in management effectiveness values, and 11 MPAs showed a change in management effectiveness category. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the year the management board was established, and the effectiveness value provided by the council, as well as a significant difference between the effectiveness values of the MPAs under federal and state responsibility. In view of these differences, it is suggested that evaluations of management effectiveness should be carried out not only with managers, but also with management boards to reduce possible incongruities caused by the responses of only one person.
Almeida LT, Olímpio JLS, Pantalena AF, Almeida BS, Soares MO (2016) Evaluating ten years of management effectiveness in a mangrove protected area. Ocean Coast Manag, 125, 29-37.
Araújo JL, Bernard E (2016) Management effectiveness of a large marine protected area in Northeastern Brazil. Ocean Coast Manag, 130, 43-49.
Arnstein SR (1969) A Ladder of Citizen Participation. JAIP, 35(4), 216-224.
Babcock RC, Shears NT, Alcala AC, Barrett NS, Edgar GJ, Lafferty KD, McClanahan TR, Russ GR (2010) Decadal trends in marine reserves reveal differential rates of change in direct and indirect effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 43, 18256– 18261.
Baker AC, Glynn PW, Riegl B (2008) Climate change and coral reef bleaching: an ecological assessment of the long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlooks. Estuar Coast Shelf S, 80(4), 435–471.
Berkes F (1994) Co-management: Bridging the two solitudes. Northern Perspectives 22(2-3), 18-20.
Bernard E, Penna LAO, Araújo E (2014) Downgrading, Downsizing, Degazettement, and Reclassification of Protected Areas in Brazil. Conserv Biol, 28(4), 939–950.
Bowling A (2005) Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data quality. J Public Health, 27(3), 281–291.
Borrini-Feyerabend G, Dudley N, Jaeger T, Lassen B, Pathak Broome N, Phillips A, Sandwith T (2013) Governance of Protected Areas: From understanding to action Best Practice Protected Area. Guidelines Series No 20 IUCN-WCPA, Gland, Switzerland.
Brandão CS, Malta A, Schiavetti A (2017) Temporal assessment of the management effectiveness of reef environments: The role of marine protected areas in Brazil. Ocean Coast Manag 142, 111-121.
Brazil. 1981Lei nº 6938. Dispõe sobre a Política Nacional do Meio Ambiente, seus fins e mecanismos de formulação e aplicação, e dá outras providências. http://wwwplanaltogovbr/ ccivil_03/leis/L6938htm (Accessed 18 Julio 2016).
Brazil. 2000 Lei nº 9985. Institui o Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação da Natureza. http://wwwmmagovbr/port/conama/legiabrecfm?codlegi¼322 (Accessed 02 August 2016).
Brazil. 2002 Decreto nº 4340. Regulamenta artigos da Lei no 9985, que dispõe sobre o Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação da Natureza - SNUC, e dá outras providências. http://wwwmmagovbr/port/ conama/legiabrecfm?codlegi =374 (Accessed 03 August 2016).
Brazil. 2006 Decreto nº 5758. Institui o Plano Estratégico Nacional de Áreas Protegidas - PNAP, seus princípios, diretrizes, objetivos e estratégias, e dá outras providências. http://wwwplanaltogovbr/ccivil_03/_ato2004-2006/2006/decreto/d57 58htm (Accessed 20 Julio 2016).
Campbell SJ, Kartawijaya T, Yulianto I, Prasetia R, Clifton J (2013) Co-management approaches and incentives improve management effectiveness in the Karimunjawa National Park, Indonesia. Mar Policy, 41, 72–79.
Castro CB, Santos RA, Steenbock W, Pires DO (2016) Plano de Ação Nacional
para a Conservação dos Ambientes Coralíneos (PAN Corais), in: Zilberberg, C, Abrantes, DP, Marques, JA, Machado, LF, Marangoni, LFB (Eds), Conhecendo Os Recifes Brasileiros Rede de Pesquisas Coral Vivo Museu Nacional, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro.
Cook CN, Hockings M (2011) Opportunities for improving the rigor of management effectiveness evaluations in protected areas. Conserv Lett 4(5), 372–382.
Corral LSG (2010) Caso de aplicacion de la Metodología RAPPAM a la Red de Reservas Marinas de Espana Thesis (Master en Espacios Naturales Protegidos). Fundacion Interuniversitaria Fernando Gonzalez Bernaldez, Ed Secretaría General del Mar, Madrid.
Crawley MJ (2013) The R book. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, London, UK.
Day J, Dudley N, Hockings M, Holmes G, Laffoley D, Stolton S, Wells S (2012) Guidelines for Applying the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories to Marine Protected Areas IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Ervin J, Belokurov V (2010) Inclusion of climate changes in the questionnaire for Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management. http://protectedareasand climatechangegroupsitecom/file_cabinet?order=file_size (accessed 20 November 2014).
Ervin J (2003a) WWF Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area
Management (Rappam) Methodology WWF, Gland, Swizertland.
Ervin J, (2003b) Rapid assessment of protected area management effectiveness in four countries. BioScience, 53(9), 833-841.
Fearnside PM (2016) Brazilian politics threaten environmental policies. Science, 353(80), 746–748.
Ferrol-Schulte D, Wolff M, Ferse SCA, Glaser M (2013) Sustainable Livelihoods Approach in tropical coastal and marine social–ecological systems: a review. Mar Pol, 42, 253–258.
Fouladi RT, McCarthy CJ, Moller NP (2002) Paper-and-Pencil or Online? Evaluating Mode Effects on Measures of Emotional Functioning and Attachment Assessment, 9(2), 204-215.
Gerhardinger LC, Godoy EAS, Jones PJS, Sales G, Ferreira BP (2011) Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas. Environ Manage, 47, 630–643.
Gerhardinger LC, Gorris P, Leandra RG, Dannieli FH, Daniele AVN, Fabiano GC, Marion G, Ruben Z, Bruce CG (2018) Healing Brazil’s Blue Amazon: The Role of Knowledge Networks in Nurturing Cross-Scale Transformations at the Frontlines of Ocean Sustainability Healing the Blue Amazon with Knowledge-Action Networks. Front Mar Sci, 4, 395.
Glaser M, Radjawali I, Ferse S, Glaeser B (2010) Nested participation in hierarchical societies? Lessons for social-ecological research and management Intern J. Sust Societ 2, 390–414.
Goodman PS (2003) Assessing Management Effectiveness and Setting Priorities in Protected Areas in KwaZulu-Natal. BioScience, 53(9), 843-850.
Himes AH (2007) Performance indicators in MPA management: Using questionnaires to analyze stakeholder preferences. Ocean Coast Manag 50, 329–351.
Hockings M, Leverington F, Cook C (2015) Protected area management effectiveness, in: Worboys GL, Lockwood M, Kothari A, Feary S, Pulsford I (Eds), Protected Area Governance and Management ANU Press. Canberra, pp 889–928.
Hockings M, Solton S, Dudley N (2000) Evaluation Effectiveness: a Framework for Assessing the Management of Protected Areas IUCN-WCPA. Gland, Switzerland.
Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ, Steneck RS, Greenfield P, Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards AJ, Caldeira K, Knowlton N, Eakin CM, Iglesias-Prieto R, Muthiga N, Bradbury RH, Dubi A, Hatziolos ME (2007) Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318(5857), 1737–1742.
Horigue V, Alino PM, White AT, Pressey, RL (2012) Marine protected area networks in the Philippines: trends and challenges for establishment and governance. Ocean Coast Manag 64, 15–26.
Izurieta-Valery A (1997) Evaluación de la eficiencia del manejo de áreas protegidas: validación de una metodología aplicada a un subsistema de áreas protegidas y sus zonas de influencia, en el área de conservación de Osa. Costa Rica Thesis (Máster en Area de Manejo de Bosques Tropicales y Conservación de la Biodiversidad) Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Turrialba.
Jones PJS (2014) Governing Marine Protected Areas: Resilience through Diversity. Oxon, New York, NY.
Kelleher G (1999) Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas IUCN. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Lu DJ, Kao CW, Chao CL (2012) Evaluating the management effectiveness of five protected areas in Taiwan using WWF's RAPPAM. Environ Manag 50(2), 272-282.
Lubchenco J, Grorud-Colvert K (2015) Making waves: the science and politics of ocean protection. Science, 350, 382–383.
Magris RA, Mills M, Fuentes MMPB, Pressey RL (2013) Analysis of progress
towards a comprehensive system of marine protected areas in Brazil. Nat Conserv 11 (1), 81-87.
Marroni EV, Asmus M L (2013) Historical antecedents and local governance in the process of public policies building for coastal zone of Brazil. Ocean Coast Manage 76, 30–37.
Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) (2009) Pilares para a Sustentabilidade Financeira do Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação, second ed MMA/SBF/DAP, MMA, Brasília.
Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) (2020) Quantidade de áreas marinhas protegidas, por esfera de gestão. https://wwwmmagovbr/areas-protegidas/ unidades-de-conservacao/sistema-nacional-de-ucs-snuchtml (accessed 21 Julio 2020).
Mumby PJ, Dahlgren CP, Harborne AR, Kappel CV, Micheli F, Brumbaugh DR, Holmes KE, Mendes JM, Broad K, Sanchirico JN, Buch K, Box S, Stoffle RW, Gill AB (2006) Fishing, Trophic Cascades, and the Process of Grazing on Coral. Reefs Science, 311(5757):98–101.
Lockwood M, Worboys GL, Kothari A (2006) Managing Protected Areas: A Global Guide. Earthscan, London.
Nobre DM, Schiavetti A (2013) Acordos de Pesca, Governança e Conselho Deliberativo de Reserva Extrativista: Caso da Resex de Cassurubá, Caravelas, Bahia, Brasil. Bol Inst Pesca 39(4):445 – 455.
Nobre DM, Alarcon DT, Cinti A, Schiavetti, A (2017) Governance of the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve, Bahia State, Brazil: An analysis of strengths and weaknesses to inform policy. Mar Policy, 77, 44–55.
Ogana CA, Drumond MA, Ferreira MN (2012) (Org) Management Effectiveness of Brazilian Federal Protected Areas: Results of 2010 WWF-BRASIL, ICMBio, Brasília.
Oliveira-Júnior JG, Ladle RJ, Correia R, Batista VS (2016) Measuring what matters - Identifying indicators of success for Brazilian marine protected areas. Mar Policy, 74, 91-98.
Palumbi S R (2004) Marine reserves and ocean neighborhoods: the spatial scale of marine populations and their management. Ann Rev Environ Resour, 29:31-68.
Pinheiro HT, Di Dario F, Gerhardinger LC, de Melo MRS, De Moura RL, Reis RE, Vieira F, Zuanon J, Rocha LA (2015) Brazilian aquatic biodiversity in peril. Science, 350, 1043–1044.
R Development Team (2016) R: A language and environment for statistical computing R Foundation for Statistical Computing [Internet] R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Viena, Austria.
Santos CZ, Schiavetti A (2014) Assessment of the management in Brazilian Marine Extractive Reserves. Ocean Coast Manage, 93, 26-36.
Schiavetti A, Manz J, Santos CZ, Magro TC, Pagani MI (2013) Marine Protected Areas in Brazil: An ecological approach regarding the large marine ecosystems. Ocean Coast Manage, 76, 96-104.
Soares MO, Lucas CC (2018) Towards large and remote protected areas in the South Atlantic Ocean: St Peter and St Paul´s Archipelago and the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain. Mar Pol, 93, 101-103.
UNEP (1994) Convention on Biological Diversity Text and Annexes United Nations Environment Programme, Châtelaine.
UNEP-WCMC and IUCN (2017) Protected Planet Report 2017 Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland: UNEP-WCMC and IUCN.
Vasconcellos M, Diegues AC, Kalikoski DC (2011) Coastal fisheries of Brazil In, Salas S, Chuenpagdee R, Charles A, Seijo JC Coastal fisheries of Latin America and the Caribbean FAO, Rome, 73-116.
Vasconcelos L, Pereira MJR, Caser U, Goncalves G, Silva F, Sa R (2013) MARGov—setting the ground for the governance of marine protected areas. Ocean Coast Manag 72, 46–53.
Veenvliet JK, Sovinc A (2009) Protected area management effectiveness in Slovenia, Final report of the RAPPAM analysis WWF, Slovenia.
Venter O, Fuller R A, Segan D B, Carwardine J, Brooks T, Butchart S H M, Moritz C (2014) Targeting global protected area expansion for imperiled biodiversity. PLoS Biology, 12(6).
Vokou D, Dimitrakopoulos PG, Damialis A, Pantis JD (2014) Ten years of co-management in Greek protected areas: An evaluation. Biodivers Conserv 23, 2833–2855.
Weeks R, Jupiter SD (2013) Adaptive Comanagement of a Marine Protected Area Network in Fiji. Conserv Biol 27(6), 1234–1244.
Young JC, Butler JRA, Jordan A, Watt AD (2012) Less government intervention in biodiversity management: risks and opportunities. Biodivers Conserv 21, 1095–1100.
How to Cite
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.