Seasonal Variation in the consumption of biomass fuel in a rural community of Patagonia, Argentina

Daniela Morales, Soledad Molares, Ana H. Ladio

Abstract


The use of biomass as an energy resource is key to the subsistence and development of diverse rural populations throughout the world. Nevertheless, little has been considered as to how biomass consumption patterns vary throughout the year, or what strategies locals may employ. In a rural community of the Patagonian steppe, seasonal variation in domestic consumption of fuel plants was studied. Possible socioeconomic conditioning factors (i.e., size of family unit, infrastructure of dwellings, number of combustion appliances used) were analysed, and seasonal variation in the richness of plant species used was determined. Average biomass consumption was found to be 12000 kg/year/home and 1479 kg/year/per capita, with significantly higher values during winter (62.89 kg/day/home), than in summer (18.45 kg/day/home). The richness of fuel species used varied significantly during the year, and in line with biomass estimates, the highest use consensus for species was recorded during winter and autumn, with exotic species predominating. The maximum difference in species was registered in autumn, due to an increase in the stockpiling of wood bought for winter, when the preference is for high caloric value and accessible commercial price. During the year the main species used were Salix spp. and Nothofagus antarctica. The study of seasonal variation in firewood consumption contributes knowledge that can be used in detailed management of this resource, with attention being paid to differential needs as seen from a local perspective.


Keywords


energy; subsistence; scarcity; resilience; supply strategies.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andreoni F, Capparelli A (2012) El ser humano y la leña en la cordillera de Mendoza (Argentina) a lo largo del Holoceno: sitio arqueológico Arrollo Malo 3. Magallania 40(1), 203–228. http://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-22442012000100012

Aristizábal Hernández J (2010) Estufas mejoradas y bancos de leña: una alternativa de autoabastecimiento energético a nivel de finca para comunidades dependientes de los bosques de roble en la Cordillera Oriental. Colombia Forestal, 13(2), 245-256.

Arnold J, Bird P (1999) Forests and the poverty-environment nexus. UNDP/EC Expert Workshop on Poverty and the Environment, Brussels, Belgium. http://doi.org/10.1080/00049158.1949.10675273

Arre J, Molares S, Ladio A, Kutschker A (2015) Etnobotánica de las plantas leñateras y su circuito comercial en una ciudad de la Patagonia Argentina. Gaia Scientia 9: 41–48.

Baland J, Bardhan P, Das S, Mookherjee D, Sarkar R (2007). The environmental impact of poverty: evidence from firewood collection in rural Nepal. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 59(1), 23–61. http://doi.org/10.1086/655455

Belmonte S, Viramonte J, Núñez V, Franco J (2007) Situación actual y perspectivas de energías renovables en el Valle de Lerma - Salta. Avances en Energías Renovables y Medio Ambiente, 11, 55–62.

Bhatt B (2004) Firewood consumption along an altitudinal gradient in mountain villages of India. Biomass and Bioenergy, 27(1), 69–75.

Bhatt B, Sachan M (2004). Firewood consumption pattern of different tribal communities in Northeast India. Energy Policy 32: 1-6.

Bhatt B, Rathore S, Lemtur M, Sarkar B (2016) Fuelwood energy pattern and biomass resources in Eastern Himalaya. Renewable Energy, 94, 410–417. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.03.042

Blancas J, Casas A, Lira R, Caballero J (2009) Traditional Management and Morphological Patterns of Myrtillocactus schenckii (Cactaceae) in the Tehuachan Valley, Central Mexico. Economic Botany, 63(4), 375–387. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12231-009-9095-2

Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C. (2000). Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecol. Appl. 10, 1251–1262. http://doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1251:ROTEKA]2.0.CO;2

Berkes F, Davidson-Hunt I (2006). Biodiversity, traditional management systems, and cultural landscapes: examples from the boreal forest of Canada. Int. Social Sci. J. 58, 35–47. http://doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2451.2006.00605.x

Brouwer R, Falcão M (2004) Wood fuel consumption in Maputo, Mozambique. Biomass and Bioenergy, 27(3), 233–245. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2004.01.005

Cabrera A (1976) Regiones fitogeográficas argentinas. Enciclopedia Argentina de Agricultura y Jardinería, Tomo II Fs. 1st Edn. Buenos Aires: ACME. Bs. As. Argentina, 1–85.

Camacho L. 2011. Conocimiento etnobotánico, patrones de uso y manejo de plantas útiles en la cuenca del río Cane-Iguaque (Boyacá - Colombia); una aproximación desde los Sistemas de Uso de la Biodiversidad. Ambiente and Sociedade, XIV(1): 45-75.

Cardoso M B, Ladio A (2011) Forestación peridoméstica en Patagonia y conocimiento ecológico tradicional: un estudio de caso. Sitient. Ciênc. Biol. 11, 321–327. doi: 10.13102/scb110

Cardoso M B, Ladio A H, Lozada M (2013) Fuelwood consumption patterns and resilience in two rural communities of the northwest Patagonian steppe, Argentina. Journal of arid environments, 98, 146-152.

Cardoso M B, Ladio A H, Dutrus S M, Lozada M (2015) Biomass and Bioenergy Preference and calorific value of fuelwood species in rural populations in northwestern Patagonia. Biomass and Bionergy , 81, 514–520. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.08.003

Cardoso M B, Lozada M, Ladio A (2017) Niche breadth and redundancy : Useful indices to analyse fuelwood use in rural communities. Journal of Arid Environments, 155, 52-59. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2017.05.007

Caruso L (2013) Experimentación y propiedades combustibles de especies del bosque andino patagónico aportación al estudio antracológico de sitios arqueológicos. Magallania, 41(2):145-158.

Celentano D, Rousseau G, Engel V, Façanha C, Oliveira E, Moura E (2014) Perceptions of environmental change and use of traditional knowledge to plan riparian forest restoration with relocated communities in Alcântara, Eastern Amazon. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 10(1), 11. http://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-10-11

Chettri N, Sharma E, Deb D, Sundriyal R (2002) Impact of firewood extraction on tree structure, regeneration and woody biomass productivity in a trekking corridor of the Sikkim Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development, 22, 150–158.

Cline-Cole R, Main H, Nichol J (1990) On fuelwood consumption, population dynamics and deforestation in Africa. World Development, 18(4), 513–527. http://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(90)90068-9

Córdova-Aguilar H (1992). Firewood use and the effect on the ecosystem: A case study of the Sierra of Piura, Northwestern Peru. GeoJournal 26, 297-309.

Correa M N (1971) Flora patagónica. Parte VII. Compositae. Buenos Aires: Colección Científica del INTA. Bs. As, 451.

Correa M N (1978) Flora Patagónica. Gramineae. Tomo 8 Parte 3. Buenos Aires:Colección Científica del INTA. Bs. As.

Correa M N (1984) Flora patagónica. Parte IVa. Dicotiledóneas Dialipétaleas (Salicaceaea Cruciferae). Buenos Aires: Colección Científica del INTA. Bs. As., 559.

Démurger S, Fournier M (2011) Poverty and firewood consumption : A case study of rural households in northern China. China Economic Review, 33, 1-33.

Díaz- Robles (2013). Estudio de consumo y caracterización del uso de la leña en la ciudad de Osorno. Informe Universidad Católica de Temuco. 1–133.

Ektvedt T M (2011) Firewood consumption amongst poor inhabitants in a semiarid tropical forest: A case study from Piura, northern Peru. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 65(1), 28–41. http://doi.org/10.1080/00291951.2010.549951

FAOSTAT (2015) Organización de las naciones unidas para la alimentación y la agricultura (FAO), Dirección de estadística FAOSTAT. http://faostat.fao.org

Feinsinger P (2003) El diseño de estudio de campo para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Ed. FAN Santa Cruz de Bolivia. 244p.

González A D, Gortari S, Crivelli E (2005) Uso racional de energía y conservación de bosques en la Patagonia andina. Avances en Energías Renovables y Medio Ambiente 9, 1–6.

INDEC (2010) Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos 2010 [http://www.indec.gob.ar/] Accessed December 2015.

INTA (2018) Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuario. Agrometeorologia Esquel. https://inta.gob.ar/documentos/datos-meteorologicos-de-gualjaina

ISE (2006) International Society of Ethnobiology Code of Ethics. Available online at: http://ethnobiology.net/code-of-ethics

Izquierdo F, Velazco V, Abdel N (2009) Montes leñeros y cortinas de reparo en la región sur de Río Negro. 1 ed. Boletín de divulgación INTA, Buenos Aires.

Kebede A, Chimdi A, Nair A S (2015) Effect of Firewood Energy Consumption of Households on Deforestation in Debis Watershed Ambo District, Oromia Regional State. Ethiopia, 33(7), 1154–1163.

http://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wasj.2015.33.07.14586

Kumar M, Sharma C M (2009) Fuelwood consumption pattern at different altitudes in rural areas of Garhwal Himalaya. Biomass and Bioenergy, 33(10), 1413–1418. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.06.003

Lobera J, Michelutti E (2007). Construcción sostenible y construcción de la sostenibilidad : una experiencia en comunidades rurales de El Salvador. Revista Internacional de Sostenibilidad, Tecnología y Humanismo, 53–68.

Madubansi M, Shackleton C M (2006) Changing energy profiles and consumption patterns following electrification in five rural villages, South Africa. Energy Policy, 34(18), 4081-4092

Madubansi M, Shackleton C M (2007) Changes in fuelwood use and selection following electrification in the Bushbuckridge lowveld, South Africa. Journal of Environmental Management, 83(4), 416–426. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.03.014

Malyshev T (2009) Looking ahead: energy, climate change and pro‐poor responses. Foresight, 11(4), 33–50. http://doi.org/10.1108/14636680910982421

Marufu L, Ludwig J, Andreae MO, Lelieveld J, Helas G (1999) Spatial and temporal variation in domestic biofuels consumption rates and patterns in Zimbabwe: implications for atmospheric trace gas emission. Biomass and Bioenergy;16:311–32.

Medeiros P M De, Almeida A L S De, Da Silva T C, Albuquerque U P De (2011). Pressure Indicators of Wood Resource Use in an Atlantic Forest Area, Northeastern Brazil. Environmental Management, 47(3), 410–424. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9618-3.

Mereb M (1990) Caracterización climatológica de los valles superior y medio del río Chubut. Dirección general de estudios y proyectos. Hidrometeorológico principal. Provincia del Chubut: Ministerio de economía, obras y servicios públicos.

Metz J (1994) Forest product use at an upper elevation village in Nepal. Environ Manag,18(3):371-90. }

Molares S, Ladio A (2012) Mapuche perceptions of Andean Nothofagus forests and their medicinal plants: a case study from a rural community in Patagonia, Argentina. Biodivers. Conserv. 21, 1079–1093. doi: 10.1007/s10531-012-0241-2

Morales D, Molares S, Ladio A (2017)a Firewood Resource Management in Different Landscapes in NW Patagonia. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 5:111. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2017.00111

Morales D, Molares S, Ladio A (2017)b A biocultural approach to firewood scarcity in rural communities inhabiting arid environments in Patagonia (Argentina). Ethnobiology and Conservation 6(12): 1-17. doi:10.15451/ec2017-08-6.12-1-17

Ramírez-Quirama J, Taborda Vergara A L (2014) Consumo de leña en fogones tradicionales en familias campesinas del oriente antioqueño. Producción Más Limpia, 9(1), 99–114. http://doi.org/10.22507/pml.v9n1a8

Schobert H (2002) Energy and Society (An Introduction). NY Ed.672 pp. 27, 57–68. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2003.10.008

Shackleton C M, Shackleton S E, Buiten E, Bird N (2007) The importance of dry woodlands and forests in rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation in South Africa. Forest Police, 9(5), 558–577. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2006.03.00

Stella V, Tozzini A (2014) Existimos, porque acá estamos. Memorias de pertenencias y movilidades históricas interpelando modelos y detenciones comunitarios actuales en el noroeste de la Provincia de Chubut. XI Congreso Argentino de Antropología Social. Facultad de Humanidades y Artes – UNR – Rosario, Argentina.

Tabuti J, Dhilliona S, Lyea K (2003) Firewood use in Bulamogi County, Uganda: species selection, gathering and consumption patterns. Biomass and Bioenergy. 25, 581–596. doi: 10.1016/S0961-9534(03)00052-7

Tissari J, Hytonen K, Sippula O, Jokiniemi J (2009) The effects of operating conditions on emissions from masonry heaters and sauna stoves. Biomass and Bioenergy, 33, pp 5 1 3 – 5 2 0.

Top N, Mizoue N, Kai S, Nakao T (2004) Variation in woodfuel consumption patterns in response to forest availability in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. Biomass and Bioenergy,27(1),57-68

Van Kempen L, Muradian R, Sandóval C, Castañeda J P (2009) Too poor to be green consumers? A field experiment on revealed preferences for firewood in rural Guatemala. Ecological Economics, 68(7), 2160–2167. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.02.014

Vermeulen S J, Campbell B M, Mangono J J (2000). Shifting patterns of fuel and wood use by households in rural Zimbabwe. Energy and Environment, 11(3), 233-254.

Vishwambhar Prasad S (2015). Natural Resource Conditions and Economic Development in the Uttaranchal Himalaya, India. Journal of Mountain Science, 12(4), 1051–1064. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2925-9


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


SCImago Journal & Country Rank